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Amazon (company)

American multinational technology company

For other companies, see Amazon (disambiguation) § Organizations.

Amazon logo.svg

Logo since 2000

Amazon Spheres 05.jpg

The Amazon Spheres, part of the Amazon headquarters in Seattle, U.S.

Trade name

Amazon
FormerlyCadabra, Inc. (1994–1995)
TypePublic

Traded as

ISINUS0231351067
Industry
FoundedJuly 5, 1994; 27 years ago (1994-07-05)
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
FounderJeff Bezos
Headquarters

Seattle, Washington

,

U.S.

Area served

Worldwide

Key people

Products
Services
RevenueIncreaseUS$386.064 billion (2020)

Operating income

IncreaseUS$22.9 billion (2020)

Net income

IncreaseUS$21.331 billion (2020)
Total assetsIncreaseUS$321.2 billion (2020)
Total equityIncreaseUS$93.404 billion (2020)
OwnerJeff Bezos (14.0% voting power, 10.6% economic interest)[1]

Number of employees

Increase 1,468,000 (Sept. 2021)[2][3]
U.S.: 810,000 (Oct. 2020)
Subsidiaries
Websiteamazon.com
Footnotes / references
[4][5]

Amazon.com, Inc.[6] (AM-ə-zon) is an American multinationaltechnologycompany which focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence. It is one of the Big Five companies in the U.S. information technology industry, along with Google (Alphabet), Apple, Meta (Facebook), and Microsoft.[7][8][9][10] The company has been referred to as "one of the most influential economic and cultural forces in the world", as well as the world's most valuable brand.[11][12]

Jeff Bezos founded Amazon from his garage in Bellevue, Washington,[13] on July 5, 1994. It started as an online marketplace for books but expanded to sell electronics, software, video games, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization.[14] In August 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for US$13.4 billion, which substantially increased its footprint as a physical retailer.[15] In 2018, its two-day delivery service, Amazon Prime, surpassed 100 million subscribers worldwide.[16]

Amazon is known for its disruption of well-established industries through technological innovation and mass scale.[17][18][19] It is the world's largest online marketplace, AI assistant provider, live-streaming platform and cloud computing platform[20] as measured by revenue and market capitalization.[21] Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world.[22] It is the second-largest private employer in the United States[23] and one of the world's most valuable companies. As of 2020[update], Amazon has the highest global brand valuation.[24]

Amazon distributes a variety of downloadable and streaming content through its Amazon Prime Video, Amazon Music, Twitch, and Audible subsidiaries. Amazon also has a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, film and television studio Amazon Studios, and a cloud computing subsidiary, Amazon Web Services. It produces consumer electronics including Kindlee-readers, Firetablets, Fire TV, and Echo devices. Its acquisitions over the years include Zoox, Ring, Twitch, Whole Foods Market, and IMDb. Amazon is currently in the process of purchasing film and television studio, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

Amazon has been criticized for practices including technological surveillance overreach,[25] a hyper-competitive and demanding work culture,[26]tax avoidance,[27] and anti-competitive behavior.[28][29]

History

Further information: History of Amazon

The company's largest campus outside the United States was inaugurated in Hyderabad, India in September 2019.

Jeff Bezos founded Amazon in July 1994, choosing Seattle because of technical talent as Microsoft is located there.[30]Mackenzie Scott played a big role in the founding of Amazon and drove across the country with Jeff to start it. After Scott graduated, she applied to work for D. E. Shaw & Co., a quantitative hedge fund in New York City, as a research associate to "pay the bills while working on her novels".[31][32] She was interviewed by Jeff Bezos, who was then a vice-president at the firm. The interview was her first meeting with him.[33][31]

In May 1997, Amazon went public. It began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, Amazon began selling items including video games, consumer electronics, home improvement items, software, games, and toys.

In 2002, Amazon launched Amazon Web Services (AWS), which provided data on website popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers. In 2006, Amazon grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service (S3), that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, Amazon started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years later in 2017.[34]

On February 2, 2021, Amazon announced that Jeff Bezos would be stepping down as CEO and transition to Executive Chair of Amazon's board in Q3 of 2021. Andy Jassy, who is currently CEO of AWS, will succeed Bezos as CEO of the company.[35][36]

Board of directors

As of September 2020[update], the board of directors is:[37]

  • Jeff Bezos, Executive Chairman, Amazon.com, Inc.
  • Andy Jassy, President and CEO, Amazon.com, Inc.
  • Keith B. Alexander, CEO, IronNet Cybersecurity, former NSA Director
  • Rosalind Brewer, Group President, and COO, Starbucks
  • Jamie Gorelick, partner, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr
  • Daniel P. Huttenlocher, Dean of the Schwarzman College of Computing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks
  • Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo
  • Jon Rubinstein, former chairman, and former CEO, Palm, Inc.
  • Thomas O. Ryder, former chairman, and former CEO, Reader's Digest Association
  • Patty Stonesifer, President, and CEO, Martha's Table
  • Wendell P. Weeks, chairman, President, and CEO, Corning Inc.

Merchant partnerships

In 2000, U.S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, and the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website. The company was later awarded $51 million in damages.[38][39][40]

In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would comanage Borders.com as a co-branded service.[41] Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to also launch its own online store.[42]

On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen. The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.[43]

In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014.[44]

In June 2017, Nike agreed to sell products through Amazon in exchange for better policing of counterfeit goods.[45][46] This proved unsuccessful and Nike withdrew from the partnership in November 2019.[46][47] Companies including Ikea and Birkenstock also stopped selling through Amazon around the same time, citing similar frustrations over business practices and counterfeit goods.[48]

As of October 11, 2017[update], AmazonFresh sold a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas.[49]

In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million (₹ 759 crore) in financial year 2017/2018.[50]

In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers. As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019.[51][52]

Logistics

Amazon uses many different transportation services to deliver packages. Amazon-branded services include:

  • Amazon Air, a cargo airline for bulk transport, with last mile delivery handled either by Amazon Flex, Amazon Logistics, or the United States Postal Service.
  • Amazon Flex, a smartphone app that enables individuals to act as independent contractors, delivering packages to customers from personal vehicles without uniforms. Deliveries include one or two hour Prime Now, same or next day Amazon Fresh groceries, and standard Amazon.com orders, in addition to orders from local stores that contract with Amazon.[53]
  • Amazon Logistics, in which Amazon contracts with small businesses (which it calls "Delivery Service Partners") to perform deliveries to customers. Each business has a fleet of approximately 20–40 Amazon-branded vans, and employees of the contractors wear Amazon uniforms. As of December 2020, it operates in the United States, Canada, Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom.[54]
  • Amazon Prime Air is an experimental drone delivery service.

Amazon directly employs people to work at its warehouses, bulk distribution centers, staffed "Amazon Hub Locker+" locations, and delivery stations where drivers pick up packages. As of December 2020, it is not hiring delivery drivers as employees.[55]

Rakuten Intelligence estimated that in business sales inside account executive fedex in the United States, the proportion of last-mile deliveries was 56% by Amazon's directly contracted services (mostly in urban areas), 30% by the United States Postal Service (mostly in rural areas), and 14% by UPS.[56] In April 2021, Amazon reported to investors it had increased its in-house delivery capacity by 50% in the last 12 months (which included the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States).[57]

Products and services

Main article: List of Amazon products and services

Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry, watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys & games.[citation needed] In August 2019, Amazon applied to have a liquor store in San Francisco, CA as a means to ship beer and alcohol within the city.[58] Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and also offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries.[59] In November 2020, the company started an online delivery service dedicated to prescription drugs. The service provides discounts up to 80% for generic drugs and up to 40% for branded drugs for Prime subscribe users. The products can be purchased on the company's website or dr berk over 50,000 bricks-and-mortar pharmacies in the United States.[60]

Amazon.com has a number of products and services available, including:

In September 2021, Amazon announced the launch of Astro, its first household robot, powered by its Alexa smart home technology. This can be remote-controlled when not at home, to check on pets, people, or home security. It will send owners a notification if it detects something unusual.[62]

Subsidiaries

See also: List of Amazon locations

Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Audible, Diapers.com, Goodreads, IMDb, Kiva Systems (now Amazon Robotics), Shopbop, Teachstreet, Twitch and Zappos.[63]

A9.com

A9.com, a company focused on researching and building innovative technology, has been a subsidiary since 2003.[64]

Amazon Maritime

Amazon Maritime, Inc. holds a Federal Maritime Commission license to operate as a non-vessel-owning common carrier (NVOCC), which enables the company to manage its own shipments from China into the United States.[65]

Annapurna Labs

In January 2015, Amazon Web Services acquired Annapurna Labs, an Israel-based microelectronics company reputedly for US$350–370M.[66][67][68]

Audible.com

Audible.com is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment, information and educational programming on the Internet. Audible sells digital audiobooks, radio and television programs and audio versions of magazines and newspapers. Through its production arm, Audible Studios, Audible has also become the world's largest producer of downloadable audiobooks. On January 31, 2008, Amazon announced it would buy Audible for about $300 million. The deal closed in March 2008 and Audible became a subsidiary of Amazon.[69]

Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services

Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a freight forwarding license with the US Maritime Commission. Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and air freight to potentially compete with UPS and FedEx.[70][71]

Brilliance Audio

Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in Grand Haven, Michigan.[72] The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985.[72] The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount.[73][74] At the time of the acquisition, Brilliance was producing 12–15 new titles a month.[74] It operates as an independent company within Amazon.

In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette.[75] The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track.[75] It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.[75]

ComiXology

ComiXology is a cloud-based digital comics platform with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013[update]. It offers a selection of more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS, Fire OS and Windows 8 devices and over a web browser. Amazon bought the company in April 2014.[76]

CreateSpace

CreateSpace, which offers self-publishing services for independent content creators, publishers, film studios, and music labels, became a subsidiary in 2009.[77][78]

Goodreads

Main article: Goodreads

Goodreads is a "social cataloging" website founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer, and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Khuri. The website allows individuals to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. They can also create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions. In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members and over 10 million books had been added. Amazon bought the company in March 2013.[79]

Health Navigator

In October 2019, Amazon finalized the acquisition of Health Navigator, a startup developing APIs for online health services. The startup will form part of Amazon Care, which is the company's employee healthcare service. This follows the 2018 purchase of PillPack for under $1 billion, which has also been included into Amazon Care.[80]

Junglee

Junglee is a former online shopping service provided by Amazon that enabled customers to search for products from online and offline retailers in India. Junglee started off as a virtual database that was used to extract information from the Internet and deliver it to enterprise applications. As it progressed, Junglee started to use its database technology to create a single window marketplace on the Internet by making every item from every supplier available for first national exchange bank roanoke va. Web shoppers could locate, compare and transact millions of products from across the Internet shopping mall through one window.[81]

Amazon acquired Junglee in 1998, and the website Junglee.com was launched in India in February 2012[82] as a comparison-shopping website. It curated and enabled searching for a diverse variety of products such as clothing, electronics, toys, jewelry and video games, among others, across thousands of online and offline sellers. Millions of products are browsable, the client selects a price, and then they are directed to a seller. In November 2017, Amazon closed down Junglee.com and the former domain currently redirects to Amazon India.[83]

Kuiper Systems

Main article: Kuiper Systems

Kuiper Systems LLC, is a subsidiary of Amazon, set up to deploy a broadbandsatellite internet constellation with an announced 3,236 Low Earth orbitsatellites to provide satellite based Internet connectivity.[84][85][86]

Lab126

Main article: Amazon Lab126

Lab126, developers of integrated consumer electronics such as the Kindle, became a subsidiary in 2004.[87]

Ring

Main article: Ring Inc.

Ring is a home automation company founded by Jamie Siminoff in 2013. It is primarily known for its WiFi powered smart doorbells, but manufactures other devices such as security cameras. Amazon bought Ring for US$1 billion in 2018.[88]

Shelfari

Shelfari was a social cataloging website for books. Shelfari users built virtual bookshelves of the titles which they owned or had read and they could rate, review, tag and discuss their books. Users could also create groups that other members could join, create discussions and talk about books, or other topics. Recommendations could be sent to friends on the site for what books to read. Amazon bought the company in August 2008.[79] Shelfari continued to function as an independent book social network within the Amazon until January 2016, when Amazon announced that it would be merging Shelfari with Goodreads and closing down Shelfari.[89][90]

Souq

Main article: Souq.com

Souq.com was the largest e-commerce platform in the Arab world. The company launched in 2005 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and served multiple areas across the Middle East.[91] On March 28 2017, Amazon acquired Souq.com for $580 million.[92] The company was re-branded as Amazon and its infrastructure was used to expand Amazon's online platform in the Middle East.[93]

Twitch

Main article: Twitch (service)

Twitch is a live streaming platform for video, primarily oriented towards video gaming content. The service was first established as a spin-off of a general-interest streaming service known as Justin.tv. Its prominence was eclipsed by that of Twitch, and Justin.tv was eventually shut down by its parent company in August 2014 in order to focus exclusively on Twitch.[94] Later that month, Twitch was acquired by Amazon for $970 million.[95] Through Twitch, Amazon also owns Curse, Inc., an operator of video gaming communities and a provider of VoIP services for gaming.[96] Since the acquisition, Twitch began to sell games directly through the platform,[97] and began offering special features for Amazon Prime subscribers.[98]

The site's rapid growth had been boosted primarily by the prominence of major esports competitions on the service, leading GameSpot senior esports editor Rod Breslau to have described the service as "the ESPN of esports".[99] As of 2015[update], the service had over 1.5 million broadcasters and 100 million monthly viewers.[100]

On August 10, 2020, Amazon announced the rebranding of Twitch Prime, the live-streaming site, renaming it Prime Gaming in another attempt to crack the video game market after failing a big-budget game effort. With Twitch Prime, users will be given a free subscription to Twitch, with free games from small studios and discounts for larger titles like Grand Theft Auto and League of Legends.[101]

On November 2, 2020, Twitch announced a virtual flagship conference and named it GlitchCon instead of TwitchCon to be held on November 14. The main aim of the conference will be to bring its numerous, disparate communities of streamers and fans together where they can be real life confidants.[102]

Whole Foods Market

Whole Foods Market is an American supermarketchain exclusively featuring foods without artificial preservatives, colors, flavors, sweeteners, and hydrogenated fats.[103]

Amazon acquired Whole Foods for $13.7 billion in August 2017.[104][105][15]

Other

Amazon also has investments in renewable energy and plans to expend its position into the Canadian market through an investment in a new plant in Alberta.[106]

Supply chain

Amazon first launched its distribution network in 1997 with two fulfillment centers in Seattle and New Castle, Delaware. Amazon has several types of distribution facilities consisting of crossdock centers, fulfillment centers, sortation centers, delivery stations, Prime now hubs, and Prime air hubs. There are 75 fulfillment centers and 25 sortation centers with over 125,000 employees.[107][108] Employees are responsible for five basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; sorting and packing orders; and shipping. A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress. Some warehouses are partially automated with systems built by Amazon Robotics.

Website

Amazon.com-Logo.svg

Logo since January 2000

Screenshot

Amazon.com screenshot.jpeg

Homepage

Type of site

E-commerce
Available in
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Dutch
  • English
  • French
  • German
  • Hindi
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • Swedish
  • Turkish
OwnerAmazon
URLamazon.com (original U.S. site)
CommercialYes
RegistrationOptional
Launched1995; 26 years ago (1995)
Current statusActive
Written inC++ and Java
[109]

The domain amazon.com attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008;[110] by the beginning of 2016, over 130 million customers were visiting the U.S. website each month.[111] The company has invested heavily in a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the Christmas holiday season.[112] According to Alexa Internet rankings, amazon.com is the third most popular website in the United States and the 11th most popular website worldwide.[113]

Results generated by Amazon's search engine are partly determined by promotional fees.[114] The company's localized storefronts, which differ in selection and prices, are differentiated by top-level domain and country code:

Amazon Marketplaces worldwide in 2021.jpg
RegionCountryDomain nameSince Notes
Africa Egyptamazon.egSeptember 2021
Americas Brazilamazon.com.brDecember 2012
Canadaamazon.caJune 2002
Mexicoamazon.com.mxAugust 2013
United Statesamazon.comJuly 1995
Asia Chinaamazon.cnSeptember 2004
Indiaamazon.inJune 2013
Japanamazon.co.jpNovember 2000
Singaporeamazon.sgJuly 2017
United Arab Emiratesamazon.aeMay 2019
Saudi Arabiaamazon.saJune 2020
Europe Franceamazon.frAugust 2000
Germanyamazon.deOctober 1998
Italyamazon.itNovember 2010
Netherlandsamazon.nlNovember 2014Books & e-books (plus readers) only, full shop per March 2020[115][116][117]
Polandamazon.plMarch 2021
Spainamazon.esSeptember 2011
Swedenamazon.seOctober 2020
Turkeyamazon.com.trSeptember 2018
United Kingdomamazon.co.ukOctober 1998
OceaniaAustraliaamazon.com.auNovember 2017

Reviews

See also: Criticism of Amazon § Amazon reviews

Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. As of December 16, 2020, Amazon removed the ability of sellers and customers to comment on product reviews and purged their websites of all posted product review comments. In an email to sellers Amazon gave its rationale for removing wells fargo sign in mobile banking feature: ". the comments feature on customer reviews was rarely used." The remaining review response options are to indicate whether the reader finds the review helpful or to report that it violates Amazon policies (abuse). If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.[118]

When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that Amazon.com was "taking a different approach . we want to make every book available—the good, the bad and the ugly . to let truth loose".[119]

There have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted business sales inside account executive fedex public relations companies on behalf of their clients[120] and instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' works.

Content search

"Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog.[121][122] The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003.[123]

Third-party sellers

Amazon derives many of its sales (around 40% in 2008) from third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon.[124] Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to Amazon on their websites if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs.[125] In the middle of 2014, the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1.2% of all websites and it is the second most popular advertising network after Google Ads.[126] It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to provide a way for supporters to earn them a commission.[127]

Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) XML service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by how to add amazon store card to account specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.[128] In 2019, Amazon launched a bigger local online store in Singapore to expand its product selection in the face of intensifying competition with competitors in the region.[129]

In July 2019, the 3rd U.S. City Court of Appeals in Philadelphia ruled that Amazon can be held accountable for faulty third-party sales.[130] The decision ran counter to a past lower court ruling that had favored Amazon. Heather Oberdorf had sued the company in 2016 over a dog leash that snapped, causing permanent loss of vision in one eye. If upheld, the decision would expose Amazon and similar platform businesses to strict liability lawsuits for defective products, which represents a major change in the law.[131] The panel sent the case back to the lower court, to decide whether the leash was actually defective.[132]

Amazon sales rank

The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon.[133] While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its bestsellers lists.[133] Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers"; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead to an increase in sales.[134] For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release point of sale data via the Nielsen BookScan service to verified authors.[135] While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers, and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales estimates based on the ASR,[136] though Amazon states:

Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources

— Amazon.com Help[137]

Multi-level sales strategy

Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate transactions. The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its platform. In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone post Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there is now a program which lets those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon's platform.[138]

Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are processed through Amazon.com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.[139]

In November 2015, Amazon opened a physical Amazon Books store in University Village in Seattle. The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all products match those on its website.[140] Amazon will open its tenth physical book store in 2017;[141] media speculation suggests Amazon plans to eventually roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country.[140]

In June 2018, it was reported that Amazon planned to open brick and mortar bookstores in Germany.[142]

In September 2020, Amazon launched Luxury Stores on its mobile app, where Oscar de la Renta become the first and only label to partner with the firm.[143]

Finances

Amazon.com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model; Amazon takes a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website while also allowing companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.[144] As of 2018[update], Amazon.com is ranked 8th on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[145]

For the fiscal year 2018, Amazon reported earnings of US$10.07 billion, with an annual revenue of US$232.887 billion, an increase of 30.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Since 2007 sales increased from 14.835 billion to 232.887 billion, thanks to continued business expansion.[146]

Amazon's market capitalization went over US$1 trillion again in early February 2020 after the announcement of the fourth quarter 2019 results.[147]

Year Revenue[148]
in mil. USD$
Net income
in mil. USD$
Total Assets
in mil. USD$
Employees
1998 610
1999 1,639
2000 2,761
2001 3,122
2002 3,932
2003[149]5,263 35 2,162
2004[149]6,921 588 3,248
2005[149]8,490 359 3,696
2006[149]10,711 190 4,363
2007[149]14,835 476 6,485 17,000
2008[150]19,166 645 8,314 20,700
2009[151]24,509 902 13,813 24,300
2010[152]34,204 1,152 18,797 33,700
2011[153]48,077 631 25,278 56,200
2012[154]61,093 −39 32,555 88,400
2013[155]74,452 274 40,159 117,300
2014[156]88,988 −241 54,505 154,100
2015[157]107,006 596 64,747 230,800
2016[158]135,987 2,371 83,402 341,400
2017[159]177,866 3,033 131,310 566,000
2018[160]232,887 10,073 162,648 647,500
2019[161]280,522 11,588 225,248 798,000
2020[162]386,064 21,331 321,195 1,298,000

Controversies

Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy for its actions, including: supplying law enforcement with facial recognition surveillance tools;[163] forming cloud computing partnerships with the CIA;[164] leading customers away from bookshops;[165] adversely impacting the environment;[166] placing a low priority on warehouse conditions for workers; actively opposing unionization efforts;[167] remotely deleting content purchased by Amazon Kindle users; taking public subsidies; seeking to patent its 1-Click technology; engaging in anti-competitive actions and price discrimination;[28][29] and reclassifying LGBT books as adult content.[168][169] Criticism has also concerned various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the WikiLeaks website, works containing libel and material facilitating dogfight, cockfight, or pedophile activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced a backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon.[170] Companies like Groupon, eBay and Taap.it countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products.[171][172]

The company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability. One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone, "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle."[114] In July 2014, the Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent.[173] In 2019, Amazon banned selling skin-lightening and racist products that might affect the consumer's health.[174]

Environmental impact

In 2018, Amazon emitted 44.4 million metric tons of CO2.[175]

In November 2018, a community action group opposed the construction permit delivered to Goodman Group for the construction of a 160,000 square metres (1,700,000 sq ft) logistics platform Amazon will operate at Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport. In February 2019, Étienne Tête filed a request on behalf of a second regional community action group asking the administrative court to decide whether the platform served a sufficiently important public interest to justify its environmental impact. Construction has been suspended while these matters are decided.[166]

In September 2019, Amazon workers organized a walk-out as part of the Global Climate Strike.[176][177] An internal group called Amazon Employees for Climate Justice said over 1,800 employees in 25 cities and 14 countries committed to participating in the action to protest Amazon's environmental impact and inaction to climate change.[176] This group of workers petitioned Jeff Bezos and Amazon with three specific demands: to stop donating to politicians and lobbyists that deny climate tcf personal login, to stop working with fossil fuel companies to accelerate oil and gas extraction, and to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2030.[178][177]

Amazon has introduced the Shipment Zero program, however Shipment Zero has only committed to reducing 50% of its shipments to net zero by 2030. Also, even that 50% does not necessarily mean a decrease in emissions compared to current levels given Amazon's rate of growth in orders.[179]

That said, Amazon's CEO has also signed the Climate Pledge, in which Amazon would meet the Paris climate agreement goals 10 years ahead of schedule, and would be carbon-neutral by 2040. Besides this pledge, it also ordered 100 000 electric delivery trucks from Rivian.[180] In September 2021, signatories of Amazon Environmental Pledge reached 200. [181] According to the report, signatories of pledge are from 16 countries, 25 industries. [182]

Amazon funds both climate denial groups including the Competitive Enterprise Institute and politicians denying climate change including Jim Inhofe.[183][184]

Amazon considered making an option for Prime customers to have packages delivered at the most efficient and environmentally-friendly time (allowing the company to combine shipments with the same destination) but decided against it out of fear customers might reduce purchases.[185] Since 2019, the company has instead offered customers an "Amazon Day" option, where all orders are delivered on the same day, emphasizing customer convenience, and it occasionally offers Prime customers credits in return for selecting slower and less expensive shipping options.[185]

The Solimo Strategy

In October 2021, based on several leaked internal documents, Reuters reported[186] that Amazon systematically harvested and studied data about their sellers' products' market performance, and used those data to identify lucrative markets and ultimately launch Amazon's own replacement products in India. The data included information about returns, the sizing of clothing down to the neck circumference and sleeve length, and the volume of product views on their website. Rivals' market performance data are not available to Amazon's sellers. The strategy also involved tweaking the search results to favor Amazon's own knock-off products. The Solimo Strategy's impact had a reach well beyond India: hundreds of Solimo branded household items, from multivitamins to coffee pods, are available in the US. One of the victims of the Solimo Strategy is the clothing brand John Miller, owned by India's 'retail king' Kishore Biyani.

Selling counterfeit, unsafe and discarded items

The selling of counterfeit products by Amazon has attracted widespread notice, with both purchases marked as being fulfilled by third parties and those shipped directly from Amazon warehouses being found to be counterfeit. This has included some products sold directly by Amazon itself and marked as "ships from and sold by Amazon.com".[187] Counterfeit charging cables sold on Amazon as purported Apple products have been found to be a fire hazard.[188][189] Such counterfeits have included a wide array of products, from big ticket items to every day items such as tweezers, gloves,[190] and umbrellas.[191] More recently, this has spread to Amazon's newer grocery services.[192] Counterfeiting was reported to be especially a problem for artists and small businesses whose products were being rapidly copied for sale on the site.[193]

One Amazon business practice that encourages counterfeiting is that, by default, seller accounts on Amazon are set to use "commingled inventory". With this practice, the goods that a seller sends to Amazon are mixed with those of the producer of the product and with those of all other sellers that supply what is supposed to be the same product.[194]

In June 2019, Buzzfeed reported that some products identified on the site as "Amazon's choice" were low quality, had a history of customer complaints, and exhibited evidence of product review manipulation.[195]

In August 2019, The Wall Street Journal reported that they had found more than 4,000 items for sale on Amazon's site that had been declared unsafe by federal agencies, had misleading labels, or had been banned by federal regulators.[196]

In the wake of the WSJ investigation, three U.S. senators – Richard Bank of america fraud department address, Ed Markey, and Bob Menendez – sent an open letter to Jeff Bezos demanding him to take action about the selling of unsafe items on the site. The letter said that "Unquestionably, Amazon is falling short of its commitment to keeping safe those consumers who use its massive platform."[197] The letter included a number of questions about the company's practices and gave Bezos a deadline to respond by September 29, 2019, saying "We call on you to immediately remove from the platform all the problematic products examined in the recent WSJ report; explain how you are going about this process; conduct a sweeping internal investigation of your enforcement and consumer safety policies; and institute changes that will continue to keep unsafe products off your platform."[197] Earlier in the same month, senators Blumenthal and Menendez had sent Bezos a letter about the Buzzfeed report.[197]

In December 2019, The Wall Street Journal reported that some people were literally retrieving trash out of dumpsters and selling it as new products on Amazon. The reporters ran an experiment and determined that it was easy for a seller to set up an account and sell cleaned up junk as new products. In addition to trash, sellers were obtaining inventory from clearance bins, thrift stores, and pawn shops.[198][199]

In August 2020, an appeals court in California ruled that Amazon can be held liable for unsafe products sold on its website. A Californian had bought a replacement laptop battery that caught fire and caused her to receive third-degree burns.[200]

Rigged search results

Reuters has reported[186] that Amazon has rigged its product search results to favor its own brand in India. According to the article, leaked internal strategy documents show that Amazon has systematically manipulated its search results such that Amazon's own brand products appear in the first three search results, leading customers to purchase those instead of other sellers' products on the platform. The company employed two tactics: search seeding and search sparkles. By search seeding Amazon boosted the rankings of its own branded goods. By search sparkles the company inserted promotions of their own brands into broad category searches.

Tax avoidance

Main article: Amazon tax

Amazon's tax affairs were investigated in China, Germany, Poland, South Korea, France, Japan, Ireland, Singapore, Luxembourg, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, United States and Portugal.[201] According to a report released by Fair Tax Mark in 2019, Amazon is the worst offender of tax avoidance, having paid a 12% effective tax rate between 2010 and 2018, in contrast with 35% corporate tax rate in the US during the same period. Amazon countered that it had an 24% effective tax rate during the same period.[202]

Comments by Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders

In early 2018, President Donald Trump repeatedly criticized Amazon's use of the United States Postal Service and its prices for the delivery of packages, stating, "I am right about Amazon costing the Business sales inside account executive fedex States Post Office massive amounts of money for being their Delivery Boy," Trump tweeted. "Amazon should pay these costs (plus) and not have them bourne [sic] by the American Taxpayer."[203] Amazon's shares fell by 6 percent as a result of Trump's comments. Shepard Smith of Fox News disputed Trump's claims and pointed to evidence that the USPS was offering below-market prices to all customers with no advantage to Amazon. However, analyst Tom Forte pointed to the fact that Amazon's payments to the USPS are not made public and that their contract has a reputation for being "a sweetheart deal".[204][205]

Throughout the summer of 2018, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders criticized Amazon's wages and working conditions in a series of YouTube videos and media appearances. He also pointed to the fact that Amazon had paid no federal income tax in the previous year.[206] Sanders solicited stories from Amazon warehouse workers who felt exploited by the company.[207] One such story, by James Bloodworth, described the environment as akin to "a low-security prison" and stated that the company's culture used an Orwellian newspeak.[208] These reports cited a finding by New Food Economy that one third of fulfilment center workers in Arizona were on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).[209] Responses by Amazon included incentives for employees to tweet positive stories and a statement which called the salary figures used by Sanders "inaccurate and misleading". The statement also charged that it was inappropriate for him to refer to SNAP as "food stamps".[207] On September 5, 2018, Sanders along with Ro Khanna introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act aimed at Amazon and other alleged beneficiaries of corporate welfare such as Walmart, McDonald's and Uber.[210] Among the bill's supporters were Tucker Carlson of Fox News and Matt Taibbi who criticized himself and other journalists for not covering Amazon's contribution to wealth inequality earlier.[211][212]

On October 2, 2018, Amazon announced that its minimum wage for all American employees would be raised to $15 per hour. Sanders congratulated the company for making this decision.[213]

Opposition to trade unions

Main article: Amazon worker organization

A sticker expressing an anti-Amazon message is pictured on the back of a street sign in Seattle.

Amazon has opposed efforts by trade unions to organize in both the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2001, 850 employees in Seattle were laid off by Amazon.com after a unionization drive. The Washington Alliance of Technological Workers (WashTech) accused the company of violating union laws, and claimed Amazon managers subjected them to intimidation and heavy propaganda. Amazon denied any link between the unionization effort and layoffs.[214] Also in 2001, Amazon.co.uk hired a US management consultancy organization, The Burke Group, to assist in defeating a campaign by the Graphical, Paper and Media Union (GPMU, now part of Unite the Union) to achieve recognition in the Milton Keynes distribution depot. It was alleged that the company victimized or sacked four union members during the 2001 recognition drive and held a series of captive meetings with employees.[215]

An Amazon training video that was leaked in 2018 stated "We are not anti-union, but we are not neutral either. We do not believe unions are in the best interest of our customers or shareholders or most importantly, our associates."[216] Two years later, it was found that Whole Foods was using a heat map to track which stores had the highest levels of pro-union sentiment. Factors including racial diversity, proximity to other unions, poverty levels in the surrounding community and calls to the National Labor Relations Board were named as contributors to "unionization risk".[217]

In early 2020, an Amazon internal documents were leaked, it said that Whole Foods has been using an interactive heat map to monitor its 510 locations across the U.S. and assign each store a unionization risk score based on such criteria as employee loyalty, turnover rate and racial diversity. Data collected in the heat map suggest that stores with low racial and ethnic diversity, especially those located in poor communities, are more likely to unionize.[218][219]

National Labor Relations Board determined that Amazon illegally fired two employees in retaliation for efforts to organize workers.[220] In April 2021, after a majority of workers in Bessemer, Alabama voted against joining the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, the union asked for a hearing with the NLRB to determine whether the company created "an atmosphere of confusion, coercion and/or fear of reprisals" ahead of the union vote.[221]

Working conditions

Former employees, current employees, the media, and politicians have criticized Amazon for poor working conditions at the company.[222][223][224] In 2011, it was publicized that workers had to carry out tasks in 100 °F (38 °C) heat at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse. As a result of these inhumane conditions, employees became extremely uncomfortable and suffered from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air because of concerns over theft.[225] Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees.[225] The company eventually installed air conditioning at the warehouse.[226]

Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders, can walk up to 15 miles (24 km) during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners give real-time information to the employee on how quickly or slowly they are working; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.[227][228]

In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of Bad Hersfeld in the German state of Hessen. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third-party company, who apparently either had a neo-Nazi background or deliberately dressed in neo-Nazi apparel and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centers. The third-party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.[229][230][231][232]

In March 2015, it was reported in The Verge that Amazon would be removing non-compete clauses of 18 months in length from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work. Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would "directly or indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.[233][234]

A 2015 front-page article in The New York Times profiled several former Amazon employees[235] who together described a "bruising" workplace culture in which workers with illness or other personal crises were pushed out or unfairly evaluated.[14] Bezos responded by writing a Sunday memo to employees,[236] in which he disputed the Times's account of "shockingly callous management practices" that he said would never be tolerated at the company.[14]

In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015, Amazon announced that it would be extending six weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers. This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.[237]

In mid-2018, investigations by journalists and media outlets such as The Guardian reported poor working conditions at Amazon's fulfillment centers.[238][239] Later in 2018, another article exposed poor working conditions for Amazon's delivery drivers.[240]

In response to criticism that Amazon does not pay its workers a livable wage, Jeff Bezos announced beginning November 1, 2018, all US and UK Amazon employees will earn a $15 an hour minimum wage.[241] Amazon will also lobby to make $15 an hour the federal minimum wage.[242] At the same time, Amazon also eliminated stock awards and bonuses for hourly employees.[243]

On Black Friday 2018, Amazon warehouse workers in several European countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, went on strike to protest inhumane working conditions and low pay.[244]

The Daily Beast reported in March 2019 that emergency services responded to 189 calls from 46 Amazon warehouses in 17 states between the years 2013 and 2018, all relating to suicidal employees. The workers attributed their mental breakdowns to employer-imposed social isolation, aggressive surveillance, and the hurried and dangerous working conditions at these fulfillment centers. One former employee business sales inside account executive fedex The Daily Beast "It's this isolating colony of hell where people having breakdowns is a regular occurrence."[245]

On July 15, 2019, during the onset of Amazon's Prime Day sale event, Amazon employees working in the United States and Germany went on strike in protest of unfair wages and poor working conditions.[246][247]

In August 2019, the BBC reported on Amazon's Twitter ambassadors. Their constant support for and defense of Amazon and its practices have led many Twitter users to suspect that they are in fact bots, being used to dismiss the issues effecting Amazon workers.[248] In March 2021, a flurry of new ambassador accounts claiming to be employees defended the company against a unionization drive, in some cases making business sales inside account executive fedex false claim that there was no way to opt out of union dues. Amazon confirmed at least one was fake, and Twitter shut down several for violating its terms of use.[249]

In March 2020, during the coronavirus outbreak when the government instructed companies to restrict social contact, Amazon's UK staff was forced to work overtime to meet the demand spiked by the disease. A GMB spokesperson said the company had put "profit before safety".[250] GMB has continued to raise concerns regarding "gruelling conditions, unrealistic productivity targets, surveillance, bogus self-employment and a refusal to recognise or engage with unions unless forced", calling for the UK government and safety regulators to take action to address these issues.[251]

In its 2020 statement to its US shareholders, Amazon stated that "we respect and support the Core Conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO), the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Operation of these Global Human Rights Principles has been "long-held at Amazon, and codifying them demonstrates our support for fundamental human rights and the dignity of workers everywhere we operate".[252]

On November 27, 2020, Amnesty Amazon affiliate button said, workers in working for Amazon have faced great health and safety risks since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. On Black Friday, one of Amazon's busiest periods, the company failed to ensure key safety features in France, Poland, the United Kingdom and USA. Workers have been risking their health and lives to ensure essential goods are delivered to consumer doorsteps, helping Amazon achieve record profits.[253]

On January 6, 2021, Amazon said that it is planning to build 20,000 affordable houses by spending $2 billion in the regions where the major employments are located.[254]

On January 24, 2021, Amazon said that it was planning to open a pop-up clinic hosted in partnership with Virginia Mason Franciscan Health in Seattle in order to vaccinate 2,000 persons against COVID-19 on the first day.[255]

In February 2021, Amazon said that it was planning to put cameras in its delivery vehicles. Although many drivers were upset by this decision, Amazon said that the videos would only be sent in certain circumstances.[256]

Drivers have alleged they sometimes have to urinate and defecate in their vans as a result of pressure to meet quotas. This was denied in a tweet from the official Amazon News account saying: "You don't really believe the peeing in bottles thing, do you? If that were true, nobody would work for us." Amazon employees subsequently leaked an email to The Intercept[257] showing the company was aware its drivers were doing so. The email said: "This evening, an associate discovered human feces in an Amazon bag that was returned to station by a driver. This is the 3rd occasion in the last 2 months when bags have been returned to capital one platinum mastercard address with poop inside."[258] Amazon acknowledged the issue publicly after denying it at first.[259]

In July 2021, workers at the warehouse in New York City filed a complaint with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration which describes harsh 12 hour workdays with sweltering internal temperatures that resulted in fainting workers being carried out on stretchers. The complaint reads "internal temperature is too hot. We have no ventilation, dusty, dirty fans that spread debris into our lungs and eyes, are working at a non-stop pace and [we] are fainting out from heat exhaustion, getting nose bleeds from high blood pressure and feeling dizzy and nauseous." They add that many of the fans provided by the company don't work, water fountains often lack water and cooling systems are insufficient. Those filing the complaint are affiliated with the Amazon Labor Union group attempting to unionize the facility, which the company has been actively campaigning against. Similar conditions have been reported elsewhere, such as in Kent, Washington during the 2021 heat wave.[260][261]

Conflict of interest with the CIA and DOD

In 2013, Amazon secured a US$600 million contract with the CIA, which poses a potential conflict of interest involving the Bezos-owned The Washington Post and his newspaper's coverage of the CIA.[262] Kate Martin, director of the Center for National Security Studies, said, "It's a serious potential conflict of interest for a major newspaper like The Washington Post to have a contractual relationship with the government and the most secret part of the government."[263] This was later followed by a US$10 billion contract with the U.S. Department of Defense.[164]

Seattle head tax and houselessness services

In May 2018, Amazon threatened the Seattle City Council over an employee head tax proposal that would have funded houselessness services and low-income housing. The tax would have cost Amazon about $800 per employee, or 0.7% of their average salary.[264] In retaliation, Amazon paused construction on a new building, threatened to limit further investment in the city, and funded a repeal campaign. Although originally passed, the measure was soon repealed after an expensive repeal campaign spearheaded by Amazon.[265]

Nashville Operations Center of Excellence

The incentives given by the Metropolitan Council of Nashville and Davidson County to Amazon for their new Operations Center of Excellence in Nashville Yards, a site owned by developer Southwest Value Partners, have been controversial, including the decision by the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development to keep the full extent of the agreement secret.[266] The incentives include "$102 million in combined grants and tax credits for a scaled-down Amazon office building" as well as "a $65 million cash grant for capital expenditures" in exchange for the creation of 5,000 jobs over seven years.[266]

The Tennessee Coalition for Open Government called for more transparency.[266] Another local organization known as the People's Alliance for Transit, Housing, and Employment (PATHE) suggested no public money should be given to Amazon; instead, it should be spent on building more public housing for the working poor and the homeless and investing in more public transportation for Nashvillians.[267] Others suggested incentives to big corporations do not improve the local economy.[268]

In November 2018, the proposal to give Amazon $15 million in incentives was criticized by the Nashville Firefighters Union and the Nashville chapter of the Fraternal Order of Police,[269] who called it "corporate welfare."[270] In February 2019, another $15.2 million in infrastructure was approved by the council, although it was voted down by three council members, including Councilwoman Angie Henderson who dismissed it as "cronyism".[271]

Facial recognition technology and law enforcement

While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services. Initial testing included the city of Orlando, Florida, and Washington County, Oregon. Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer. These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to an expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse. Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration.[163][272][273] Because of the backlash, the city of Orlando publicly stated it will no longer use the technology, but may revisit this decision at a later date.[274]

Access to NHS data

The UK government awarded Amazon a contract that gives the company free access to information about healthcare published by the UK's National Health Service.[275] This will, for example, be used by Amazon's Alexa to answer medical questions, although Alexa also uses many other sources of information. The material, which excludes patient data, could also allow the company to make, advertise and sell its own products. The contract allows Amazon access to information on symptoms, causes and definitions of conditions, and "all related copyrightable content and data and other materials". Amazon can then create "new products, applications, cloud-based services and/or distributed software", which the NHS will not benefit from financially. The company can also share the information with third parties. The government said that allowing Alexa devices to offer expert health advice to users will reduce pressure on doctors and pharmacists.[276]

Collection of data and surveillance

On February 17, 2020, a Panorama documentary broadcast by the BBC in the UK highlighted the amount of data collected by the company and the move into surveillance causing concerns of politicians and regulators in the US and Europe.[277][278]

Antitrust complaints

On June 11, 2020, the European Union announced that it will be pressing charges against Amazon over its treatment of third-party e-commerce sellers.[279]

In July 2020, Amazon along with other tech giants Apple, Google and Meta were accused of maintaining harmful power and anti-competitive strategies to quash potential competitors in the market.[280] The CEOs of respective firms appeared in a teleconference on July 29, 2020, before the lawmakers of the U.S. House Antitrust Subcommittee.[281] In October 2020, the antitrust subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives released a report accusing Amazon of abusing a monopoly position in ecommerce to unfairly compete with sellers on its own platform.[282]

Anti-vaccination and non-scientific cancer 'cures'

Anti-vaccination and non evidence-based cancer 'cures' have routinely appeared high in Amazon's books and videos. This may be due to positive reviews posted by supporters of untested methods, or gaming of the algorithms by truther communities, rather than any intent on the company's part.[283][284]

Wired magazine found that Amazon Prime Video was full of 'pseudoscientific documentaries laden with conspiracy theories and pointing viewers towards unproven treatments'.[285]

U.S. Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Calif.) expressed concern that Amazon was “surfacing and recommending products and content that discourage parents from vaccinating their children.” Amazon subsequently removed five anti-vaccination documentaries.[286] Amazon also removed 12 books that unscientifically claimed bleach could cure conditions including malaria and childhood autism. This followed an NBC News report about parents who used it in a misguided attempt to reverse their children's autism.[287]

Response to COVID-19 pandemic

Hazard pay and overtime

Amazon introduced new policies to reward frontline workers for continuing to come into work during the crisis. One of these policies, announced on March 16, 2020, was a temporary $2-per-hour rise in pay. This policy expired in June 2020.[288] Amazon also announced a policy of unlimited, unpaid time off that lasted until April 30, 2020.[289]

Additional hiring as a result of pandemic

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Amazon introduced temporary restrictions on the sale of non-essential goods. In March 2020, it hired some 100,000 more staff in the US to help deal with essential items such as food and medical equipment. It also reported that it was so busy that it was unable to bring on board new customers and therefore had to have a waiting list. In April, the firm announced that it was going to hire up to 75,000 workers to help deal with increased demand.[290] In September 2020, the company announced it would hire an additional 100,000 workers in the United States and Canada.[291]

Employee protests during COVID-19

During the pandemic there have been protests by the Amazon workers at warehouses in the US, France, and Italy. The BBC reported that there were confirmed coronavirus cases in more than 50 locations.[290] The reason for the protests is the company policy to "run normal shifts" despite many positive cases of the virus.[292] According to the UNI Global Union, "Amazon cannot act like this is business as usual. We are facing a deadly virus that has already taken the lives of thousands of people and paralyzed the world's economy. If distribution centers are not safe for workers right now, they should be closed immediately."[292] In Spain, the company has faced legal complaints over its policies.[293] Despite workers at 19 warehouses in the US having tested positive for COVID-19, Amazon did not shut down warehouses, only doing so when forced by the government or because of protests. A group of US Senators wrote an open letter to Bezos in March 2020, expressing concerns about worker safety.[294]

An Amazon warehouse protest on March 30, 2020, in Staten Island led to its organizer, Christian Smalls, being fired. Amazon defended the decision by saying that Smalls was supposed to be in self-isolation at the time and leading the protest put its other workers at risk.[293] Smalls has called this response "ridiculous".[295] The New York state attorney general, Letitia James, is considering legal retaliation to the firing which she called "immoral and inhumane."[293] She also asked the National Labor Relations Board to investigate Smalls' firing. Smalls himself accuses the company of retaliating against him for organizing a protest.[295] At the Staten Island warehouse, one case of COVID-19 has been confirmed by Amazon; workers believe there are more, and say that the company has not cleaned the building, given them suitable protection, or informed them of potential cases.[294] Smalls added specifically that there are many workers there in risk categories, and the protest only demanded that the building be sanitized and the employees continue to be paid during that process.[295] Derrick Palmer, another worker at the Staten Island facility, told The Verge that Amazon quickly communicates through text and email when they need the staff to complete mandatory overtime, but have not been using this to tell people when a colleague has contracted the disease, instead waiting days and sending managers to speak to employees in person.[294] Amazon claim that the Staten Island protest only attracted 15 of the facility's 5,000 workers,[296] while other sources describe much larger crowds.[294]

On April 14, 2020, two Amazon employees were fired for "repeatedly violating internal policies", after they had circulated a petition about health risks for warehouse workers internally.[297]

On May 4, Amazon vice president Tim Bray resigned "in dismay" over the firing of whistle-blower employees who spoke out about the lack of COVID-19 protections, including shortages of face masks and failure to implement widespread temperature checks which were promised by the company. He said that the firings were "chickenshit" and "designed to create a climate of fear" in Amazon warehouses.[298]

In a Q1 2020 financial report, Jeff Bezos announced that Amazon expects to spend $4 billion or more (predicted operating profit for Q2) on COVID-19-related issues: personal protective equipment, higher wages for hourly teams, cleaning for facilities, and expanding Amazon's COVID-19 testing capabilities. These measures intend to improve the safety and well-being of hundreds of thousands of the company's employees.[299]

From the beginning of 2020 until September of the same year, the company declared that the total number of workers who had contracted the infection was 19,816.[300]

Closure in France

The SUD (trade unions) brought a court case against Amazon for unsafe working conditions. This resulted in a French district court (Nanterre) ruling on April 15, 2020, ordering the company to limit, under threat of a €1 million per day fine, its deliveries to certain essential items, including electronics, food, medical or hygienic products, and supplies for home improvement, animals, and offices.[301] Instead, Amazon immediately shut down its six warehouses in France, continuing to pay workers but limiting deliveries to items shipped from third-party sellers and warehouses outside of France.[302] The company said the €100,000 fine for each prohibited item shipped could result in billions of dollars in fines even with a small fraction of items misclassified.[303] After losing an appeal and coming to an agreement with labor unions for more pay and staggered schedules, the company reopened its French warehouses on May 19.[302]

Lobbying

Amazon lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on multiple issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com focuses its lobbying on the United States Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Reserve. Amazon.com spent roughly $3.5 million, $5 million and $9.5 million on lobbying, in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively.[304]

Amazon.com was a corporate member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders' meeting on May 24, 2012.[305]

In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to lobby the Federal Aviation Administration to approve its drone delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld lobbying firm in June.[306] Amazon and its lobbyists have visited with Federal Aviation Administration officials and aviation committees in Washington, D.C. to explain its plans to deliver packages.[307] In September 2020 this moved one step closer with the granting of a critical certificate by the FAA.[308]

In 2019, it spent $16.8m and had a team of 104 lobbyists, up from $14.4m and 103 lobbyists in 2018.[309]

See also

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  10. ^"FANG Stocks News: Facebook, Amazon, Netflix And Google". Investor's Business Daily. September 15, 2020.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_(company)
Orlando, FL

Boeing 767

Wide-body twin-engine jet airliner family

The Boeing 767 is a wide-body airliner developed and manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The airliner was launched as the 7X7 project on July 14, 1978, the prototype first flew on September 26, 1981, and it was certified on July 30, 1982. The original 767-200 entered service on September 8, 1982 with United Airlines, and the extended-range 767-200ER in 1984. It was stretched into the 767-300 in October 1986, followed by the 767-300ER in 1988, the most popular variant. The 767-300F, a production freighter version, debuted in October 1995. It was stretched again into the 767-400ER from September 2000.

To complement the larger 747, it has a seven-abreast cross-section, accommodating smaller LD2 ULD cargo containers. The 767 is Boeing's first wide-body twinjet, powered by General Electric CF6, Rolls-Royce RB211, or Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofans. JT9D engines were eventually replaced by PW4000 engines. The aircraft has a conventional tail and a supercritical wing for reduced aerodynamic drag. Its two-crew glass cockpit, a first for a Boeing airliner, was developed jointly for the 757 − a narrow-body aircraft, allowing a common pilot type rating. Studies for a higher-capacity 767 in 1986 led Boeing to develop the larger 777 twinjet, introduced in June 1995.

The 159-foot-long (48.5 m) 767-200 typically seats 216 passengers over 3,900 nmi (7,200 km), while the 767-200ER seats 181 over a 6,590 nautical miles (12,200 km) range. The 180-foot-long (54.9 m) 767-300 typically seats 269 passengers over 3,900 nmi (7,200 km), while the 767-300ER seats 218 over 5,980 nmi (11,070 km). The 767-300F can haul 116,000 lb (52.7 t) over 3,225 nmi (6,025 km), and the 201.3-foot-long (61.37 m) 767-400ER typically seats 245 passengers over 5,625 nmi (10,415 km). Military derivatives include the E-767 for surveillance and the KC-767 and KC-46 aerial tankers.

After being initially used on U.S. transcontinental routes, that was extended with ETOPS regulations from 1985 and it is frequently used on transatlantic flights. As of August 2019[update], Boeing has received 1,254 orders from 74 customers, with 1,161 delivered, while the remaining business sales inside account executive fedex are for cargo or tanker variants.[2] A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2018.[3]Delta Air Lines is the largest operator with 77 aircraft. Competitors have included the Airbus A300, A310, and A330-200. Its successor, the 787 Dreamliner, entered service in 2011.

Development[edit]

Background[edit]

In 1970, Boeing's 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service.[4] The 747 was the first passenger jet wide enough to feature a twin-aisle cabin.[5] Two years later, the manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707 and other early generation narrow-body jets.[6][7] The aircraft would also provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-bodies.[6] To defray the high cost of development, Boeing signed risk-sharing agreements with Italian corporation Aeritalia and the Civil Transport Development Corporation (CTDC), a consortium of Japanese aerospace companies.[8] This marked the manufacturer's first major international joint venture, and both Aeritalia and the CTDC received supply contracts in return for their early participation.[8] The initial 7X7 was conceived as a short take-off and landing airliner intended for short-distance flights, but customers were unenthusiastic about the concept, leading to its redefinition as a mid-size, transcontinental-range airliner.[6] At this stage the proposed aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-tail.[4]

By 1976, a twinjet layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300, became the baseline configuration.[9] The decision to use two engines reflected increased industry confidence in the reliability and economics of new-generation jet powerplants.[9] While airline requirements for new wide-body aircraft remained ambiguous,[9] the 7X7 was generally focused on mid-size, high-density markets.[4] As such, it was intended to transport large numbers of passengers between major cities.[10] Advancements in civil aerospace technology, including high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck systems, aerodynamic improvements, and lighter construction materials were to be applied to the 7X7.[6][11] Many of these features were also included in a parallel development effort for a new mid-size narrow-body airliner, code-named 7N7, which would become the 757.[11] Work on both proposals proceeded through the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s.[12][13]

In January 1978, Boeing announced a major extension of its Everett factory—which was then dedicated to manufacturing the 747—to accommodate its new wide-body family.[14] In February 1978, the new jetliner received the 767 model designation,[15] and three variants were planned: a 767-100 with 190 seats, a 767-200 with 210 seats, and a trijet 767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental routes.[9][16] The 767MR/LR was subsequently renamed 777 for differentiation purposes.[17][18] The 767 was officially launched on July 14, 1978, when United Airlines ordered 30 of the 767-200 variant, followed by 50 more 767-200 orders from American Airlines and Delta Air Lines later that year.[17] The 767-100 was ultimately not offered for sale, as its capacity was too close to the 757's seating,[17] while the 777 trijet was eventually dropped in favor of standardizing the twinjet configuration.[9]

Design effort[edit]

In the late 1970s, operating cost replaced capacity as the primary factor in airliner purchases.[7] As a result, the 767's design process emphasized fuel efficiency from the outset.[6] Boeing targeted a 20 to 30 percent cost saving over earlier aircraft, mainly through new engine and wing technology.[7] As development progressed, engineers used computer-aided design for over a third of the 767's design drawings,[7] and performed 26,000 hours of wind tunnel tests.[17] Design work occurred concurrently with the 757 twinjet, leading Boeing to treat both as almost one program to reduce risk and cost.[11][13] Both aircraft would ultimately receive shared design features, including avionics, flight management systems, instruments, and handling characteristics.[19] Combined development costs were estimated at $3.5 to $4 billion.[7]

Early 767 customers were given the choice of Pratt & Whitney JT9D or General Electric CF6 turbofans, marking the first time that Boeing had offered more than one engine option at the launch of a new airliner.[20] Both jet engine models had a maximum output of 48,000 pounds-force (210 kN) of thrust.[10] The engines were mounted business sales inside account executive fedex one-third the length of the wing from the fuselage, similar to previous wide-body trijets.[7] The larger wings were designed using an aft-loaded shape which reduced aerodynamic drag and distributed lift more evenly across their surface span than any of the manufacturer's previous aircraft.[7][21] The wings provided higher-altitude cruise performance, added fuel capacity, and expansion room for future stretched variants.[17] The initial 767-200 was designed for sufficient range to fly across North America or across the northern Atlantic,[22] and would be capable of operating routes up to 3,850 nautical miles (7,130 km).[23]

The 767's fuselage width was set midway between that of the 707 and the 747 at 16.5 feet (5.03 m).[6] While it was narrower than previous wide-body designs, seven abreast seating with two aisles could be fitted, and the reduced width produced less aerodynamic drag.[10][20] The fuselage was not wide enough to accommodate two standard LD3 wide-body unit load devices side-by-side,[24][25] so a smaller container, the LD2,[26] was created specifically for the 767.[27] Using a conventional tail design also allowed the rear fuselage to be tapered over a shorter section,[20] providing for parallel aisles along the full length of the passenger cabin, and eliminating irregular seat rows toward the rear of the aircraft.[7][20]

Boeing twin-engine jetliner in flight near a snow-capped mountain
The first 767-200built, N767BA, in-flight near Mount Rainierin the 1980s.

The 767 was the first Boeing wide-body to be designed with a two-crew digital glass cockpit.[19]Cathode ray tube (CRT) color displays and new electronics replaced the role of the flight engineer by enabling the pilot and co-pilot to monitor aircraft systems directly.[19] Despite the promise of reduced crew costs, United Airlines initially demanded a conventional three-person cockpit, citing concerns about the risks associated with introducing a new aircraft.[28] The carrier maintained this position until July 1981, when a US presidential task force determined that a crew of two was safe for operating wide-body jets.[28][29] A three-crew cockpit remained as an option and was fitted to the first production models.[30]Ansett Australia ordered 767s with three-crew cockpits due to union demands; it was the only airline to operate 767s so configured.[30][31] The 767's two-crew cockpit was also applied to the 757, allowing pilots to operate both aircraft after a short conversion course,[21] and adding incentive for airlines to purchase both types.[32]

Production and testing[edit]

To produce the 767, Boeing formed a network of subcontractors which included domestic suppliers and international contributions from Italy's Aeritalia and Japan's CTDC.[8] The wings and cabin floor were produced in-house, while Aeritalia provided control surfaces, Boeing Vertol made the leading edge for the wings, and Boeing Wichita produced the forward fuselage.[7] The CTDC provided multiple assemblies through its constituent companies, namely Fuji Heavy Industries (wing fairings and gear doors), Kawasaki Heavy Industries (center fuselage), and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (rear fuselage, doors, and tail).[8] Components were integrated during final assembly at the Everett factory.[7] For expedited production of wing spars, the main structural member of aircraft wings, the Everett factory received robotic machinery to automate the process of drilling holes and inserting fasteners.[7] This method of wing construction expanded on techniques developed for the 747.[7] Final assembly of the first aircraft began in July 1979.[4]

Airplane assembly hall, featuring an unpainted metallic twin-jet aircraft, a presentation podium, and arranged audience chairs
Final assembly of a 767-300F at Boeing's Everett factory, which was expanded for 767 production in 1978

The prototype aircraft, registered N767BA and equipped with JT9D turbofans, rolled out on August 4, 1981.[33] By this time, the 767 program had accumulated 173 firm orders from 17 customers, including Air Canada, All Nippon Airways, Britannia Airways, Transbrasil, and Trans World Airlines (TWA).[7] On September 26, 1981, the prototype took its maiden flight under the command of company test pilots Tommy Edmonds, Lew Wallick, and John Brit.[34] The maiden flight was largely uneventful, save for the inability to retract the landing gear because of a hydraulic fluid leak.[34] The prototype was used for subsequent flight tests.[35]

The 10-month 767 flight test program utilized the first six aircraft built.[4][35] The first four aircraft were equipped with JT9D engines, while the fifth and sixth were fitted with CF6 engines.[10][36] The test fleet was largely used to evaluate avionics, flight systems, handling, and performance,[36] while the sixth aircraft was used for route-proving flights.[37] During testing, pilots described the 767 as generally easy to fly, with its maneuverability unencumbered by the bulkiness associated with larger wide-body jets.[37] Following 1,600 hours of flight tests, the JT9D-powered 767-200 received certification from the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) in July 1982.[34][35] The first delivery occurred on August 19, 1982, to United Airlines.[34] The CF6-powered 767-200 received certification in September 1982, followed by the first delivery to Delta Air Lines on October 25, 1982.[10]

Service entry and operations[edit]

The 767 entered service with United Airlines on September 8, 1982.[38] The aircraft's first commercial flight used a JT9D-powered 767-200 on the Chicago-to-Denver route.[38] The CF6-powered 767-200 commenced service three months later with Delta Air Lines.[4] Upon delivery, early 767s were mainly deployed on domestic routes, including US transcontinental services.[39] American Airlines and TWA began flying the 767-200 in late 1982, while Air Canada, China Airlines, El Al, and Pacific Western began operating the aircraft in 1983.[40] The aircraft's introduction was relatively smooth, with few operational glitches and greater dispatchreliability than prior jetliners.[41] In its first year, the 767 logged a 96.1 percent dispatch rate, which exceeded the industry average for new aircraft.[41] Operators reported generally favorable ratings for the twinjet's sound levels, interior comfort, and economic performance.[41] Resolved issues were minor and included the recalibration of a leading edge sensor to prevent false readings, the replacement of an evacuation slide latch, and the repair of a tailplane pivot to match production specifications.[41]

TWA jetliner in red and white livery during takeoff, with landing gears still down.
TWAbegan operating the first 767-200ETOPSflights in May 1985.

Seeking to capitalize on its new wide-body's potential for growth, Boeing offered an extended-range model, the 767-200ER, in its first year of service.[42]Ethiopian Airlines placed the first order for the type in December 1982.[42][43] Featuring increased gross weight and greater fuel capacity, the extended-range model could carry heavier payloads at distances up to 6,385 nautical miles (11,825 km),[44] and was targeted at overseas customers.[10] The 767-200ER entered service with El Al Airline on March 27, 1984.[43] The type was mainly ordered by international airlines operating medium-traffic, long-distance flights.[10] In May 1984, an Ethiopian Airlines 767-200ER set a non-stop record for a commercial twinjet of 12,082 km (6,524 nmi) from Washington DC to Addis Ababa.[45]

In the mid-1980s, the 767 spearheaded the growth of twinjet flights across the northern Atlantic under extended-range twin-engine operational performance standards (ETOPS) regulations, the FAA's safety rules governing transoceanic flights by aircraft with two engines.[42] Before the 767, overwater flight paths of twinjets could be no more than 90 minutes away from diversion airports.[46] In May 1985, the FAA granted its first approval for 120-minute ETOPS flights to 767 operators, on an individual airline basis starting with TWA, provided that the operator met flight safety criteria.[46] This allowed the aircraft to fly overseas routes at up to two hours' distance from land.[46] The larger safety margins were permitted because of the improved reliability demonstrated by the twinjet and its turbofan engines.[46] The FAA lengthened the ETOPS time to 180 minutes for CF6-powered 767s in 1989, making the type the first to be certified under the longer duration,[39] and all business sales inside account executive fedex engines received approval by 1993.[47] Regulatory approval spurred the expansion of transoceanic 767 flights and boosted the aircraft's sales.[42][48]

Stretched derivatives[edit]

Forecasting airline interest in larger-capacity models, Boeing announced the stretched 767-300 in 1983 and the extended-range 767-300ER in 1984.[42][49] Both models offered a 20 percent passenger capacity increase,[26] while the extended-range version was capable of operating flights up to 5,990 nautical miles (11,090 km).[50]Japan Airlines placed the first order for the -300 in September 1983.[42] Following its first flight on January 30, 1986,[49] the type entered service with Japan Airlines on October 20, 1986.[43] The 767-300ER completed its first flight on December 9, 1986,[43] but it was not until March 1987 that the first firm order, from American Airlines, was placed.[49] The type entered service with American Airlines on March 3, 1988.[43] The 767-300 and 767-300ER gained popularity after entering service, and came to account for approximately two-thirds of all 767s sold.[42]

After the debut of the first stretched 767s, Boeing sought to address airline requests for greater capacity by proposing larger models, including a partial double-deck version informally named the "Hunchback of Mukilteo" (from a town near Boeing's Everett factory) with a 757 body section mounted over the aft main fuselage.[51][52] In 1986, Boeing proposed the 767-X, a revised model with extended wings and a wider cabin, but received little interest.[52] By 1988, the 767-X had evolved into an all-new twinjet, which revived the 777 designation.[52] Until the 777's 1995 debut, the 767-300 and 767-300ER remained Boeing's second-largest wide-bodies behind the 747.[49]

A white and red-tailed Japan Airlines aircraft above the runway, with landing gears down, and an All Nippon Airways in blue and white livery taxiing
A JAL767-300 lands in front of an ANA767-300ER at Kansai Airport. The −300 and −300ER variants account for almost two-thirds of all 767s sold.

Buoyed by a recovering global economy and ETOPS approval, 767 sales accelerated in the mid-to-late 1980s; 1989 was the most prolific year with 132 firm orders.[42][48] By the early 1990s, the wide-body twinjet had become its manufacturer's annual best-selling aircraft, despite a slight decrease due to economic recession.[42] During this period, the 767 became the most common airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe.[53] By the end of the decade, 767s crossed the Atlantic more frequently than all other aircraft types combined.[54] The 767 also propelled the growth of point-to-point flights which bypassed major airline hubs in favor of direct routes.[22][55] Taking advantage of the aircraft's lower operating costs and smaller capacity, operators added non-stop flights to secondary population centers, thereby eliminating the need for connecting flights.[22] The increased number of cities receiving non-stop services caused a paradigm shift in the airline industry as point-to-point travel gained prominence at the expense of the traditional hub-and-spoke model.[22][55]

In February 1990, the first 767 equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans, a 767-300, was delivered to British Airways.[56] Six months later, the carrier temporarily grounded its entire 767 fleet after discovering cracks in the engine pylons of several aircraft.[57] The cracks were related to the extra weight of the RB211 engines, which are 2,205 pounds (1,000 kg) heavier than other 767 engines.[57] During the grounding, interim repairs were conducted to alleviate stress on engine pylon components, and a parts redesign in 1991 prevented further cracks.[57] Boeing also performed a structural reassessment, resulting in production changes and modifications to the engine pylons of all 767s in service.[58]

Side quarter view of twin-engine jetliner in front of hangar, with surrounding crowds
The Boeing 767-400ER was publicly unveiled on August 26, 1999.[43]

In January 1993, following an order from UPS Airlines,[59] Boeing launched a freighter variant, the 767-300F, which entered service with UPS on October 16, 1995.[43] The 767-300F featured a main deck cargo hold, upgraded landing gear, and strengthened wing structure.[60] In November 1993, the Japanese government launched the first 767 military derivative when it placed orders for the E-767, an Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) variant based on the 767-200ER.[61] The first two E-767s, featuring extensive modifications to accommodate surveillance radar and other monitoring equipment, were delivered in 1998 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[62][63]

In November 1995, after abandoning development of a smaller version of the 777, Boeing announced that it was revisiting studies for a larger 767.[64][65] The proposed 767-400X, a second stretch of the aircraft, offered a 12 percent capacity increase versus the 767-300,[26] and featured an upgraded flight deck, enhanced interior, and greater wingspan.[64] The variant was specifically aimed at Delta Air Lines' pending replacement of its aging Lockheed L-1011 TriStars, and faced competition from the A330-200, a shortened derivative of the Airbus A330.[64] In March 1997, Delta Air Lines launched the 767-400ER when it ordered the type to replace its L-1011 fleet.[43][64] In October 1997, Continental Airlines also ordered the 767-400ER to replace its McDonnell Douglas DC-10 fleet.[66][67] The type completed its first flight on October 9, 1999, and entered service with Continental Airlines on September 14, 2000.[43]

Dreamliner introduction[edit]

In the early 2000s, cumulative 767 deliveries approached 900, but new sales declined during an airline industry downturn.[68] In 2001, Boeing dropped plans for a longer-range model, the 767-400ERX, in favor of the proposed Sonic Cruiser, a new jetliner which aimed to fly 15 percent faster while having comparable fuel costs to the 767.[69][70] The following year, Boeing announced the KC-767 Tanker Transport, a second military derivative of the 767-200ER.[71] Launched with an order in October 2002 from the Italian Air Force, the KC-767 was intended for the dual role of refueling other aircraft and carrying cargo.[71] The Japanese government became the second customer for the type in March 2003.[71] In May 2003, the United States Air Force (USAF) announced its intent to lease KC-767s to replace its aging KC-135 tankers.[72][73] The plan was suspended in March 2004 amid a conflict of interestscandal,[72] resulting in multiple US government investigations and the departure of several Boeing officials, including Philip Condit, the company's chief executive officer, and chief financial officer Michael Sears.[74] The first KC-767s were delivered in 2008 to the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[75]

In late 2002, after airlines expressed reservations about its emphasis on speed over cost reduction,[76] Boeing halted development of the Sonic Cruiser.[76] The following year, the manufacturer announced the 7E7, a mid-size 767 successor made from composite materials which promised to be 20 percent more fuel efficient.[77] The new jetliner was the first stage of a replacement aircraft initiative called the Boeing Yellowstone Project.[76] Customers embraced the 7E7, later renamed 787 Dreamliner, and within two years it had become the fastest-selling airliner in the company's history.[77] In 2005, Boeing opted to continue 767 production despite record Dreamliner sales, citing a need to provide customers waiting for the 787 with a more readily available option.[78] Subsequently, the 767-300ER was offered to customers affected by 787 delays, including All Nippon Airways and Japan Airlines.[79] Some aging 767s, exceeding 20 years in age, were also kept in service past planned retirement dates due to the delays.[80] To extend the operational lives of older aircraft, airlines increased heavy maintenance procedures, including D-check teardowns and inspections for corrosion, a recurring issue on aging 767s.[81] The first 787s entered service federal reserve bank services routing number lookup All Nippon Airways in October 2011, 42 months behind schedule.[82]

Continued production[edit]

Side quarter view of UPS twin-engine freighter in flight, with extended gear
UPS, the largest 767-300F operator, placed additional orders in 2007.

In 2007, the 767 received a production boost when UPS and DHL Aviation placed a combined 33 orders for the 767-300F.[83][84] Renewed freighter interest led Boeing to consider enhanced versions of the 767-200 and 767-300F with increased gross weights, 767-400ER wing extensions, and 777 avionics.[85] Net orders for the 767 declined from 24 in 2008 to just three in 2010.[86] During the same period, operators upgraded aircraft already in service; in 2008, the first 767-300ER retrofitted with blended winglets from Aviation Partners Incorporated debuted with American Airlines.[87] The manufacturer-sanctioned winglets, at 11 feet (3.35 m) in height, improved fuel efficiency by an estimated 6.5 percent.[87] Other carriers including All Nippon Airways and Delta Air Lines also ordered winglet kits.[88][89]

On February 2, 2011, the 1,000th 767 rolled out, destined for All Nippon Airways.[90] The aircraft was the 91st 767-300ER ordered by the Japanese carrier, and with its completion the 767 became the second wide-body airliner to reach the thousand-unit milestone after the 747.[90][91] The 1,000th aircraft also marked the last model produced on the original 767 assembly line.[92] Beginning with the 1,001st aircraft, production moved to another area in the Everett factory which occupied about half of the previous floor space.[92] The new assembly line made room for 787 production and aimed to boost manufacturing efficiency by over twenty percent.[92]

At the inauguration of its new assembly line, the 767's order backlog numbered approximately 50, only enough for production to last until 2013.[92] Despite the reduced backlog, Boeing officials expressed optimism that additional orders would be forthcoming.[92] On February 24, 2011, the USAF announced its selection of the KC-767 Advanced Tanker, an upgraded variant of the KC-767,[93] for its KC-X fleet renewal program.[92] The selection followed two rounds of tanker competition between Boeing and Airbus parent EADS, and came eight years after the USAF's original 2003 announcement of its plan to lease KC-767s.[72] The tanker order encompassed 179 aircraft and was expected to sustain 767 production past 2013.[92]

In December 2011, FedEx Express announced a 767-300F order for 27 aircraft to replace its DC-10 freighters, citing the USAF tanker order and Boeing's decision to continue production as contributing factors.[94] FedEx Express agreed to buy 19 more of the −300F variant in June 2012.[95][96] In June 2015, FedEx said it was accelerating retirements of planes both to reflect demand and to modernize its fleet, recording charges of $276 million.[97] On July 21, 2015 FedEx announced an order for 50 767-300F with options on another 50, the largest order for the type.[98] With the announcement FedEx confirmed that it has firm orders for 106 of the freighters for delivery between 2018 and 2023.[97] In February 2018, UPS announced an order for 4 more 767-300Fs to increase the total on order to 63.[99]

With its successor, the Boeing New Midsize Airplane, that was planned for introduction in 2025 or later, and business sales inside account executive fedex 787 being much larger, Boeing could restart a passenger 767-300ER production to bridge the gap.[100] A demand for 50 to 60 aircraft could have to be satisfied.[101] Having to replace its 40 767s, United Airlines requested a price quote for other widebodies.[102] In November 2017, Boeing CEO Dennis Muilenburg cited interest beyond military and freighter uses. However, in early 2018 Boeing Commercial Airplanes VP of marketing Randy Tinseth stated that the company did not intend to resume production of the passenger variant.[103][104]

In its first quarter of 2018 earnings report, Boeing plan to increase its production from 2.5 to 3 monthly beginning in January 2020 due to increased demand in the cargo market, as FedEx had 56 on order, UPS has four, and an unidentified customer has three on order. This rate could rise to 3.5 per month in July 2020 and 4 per month in January 2021, before decreasing to 3 per month in January 2025 and then 2 per month in July 2025.[105] In 2019, unit cost was US$ 217.9 million for a -300ER, and US$ 220.3 million for a -300F.[106]

Re-engined 767-XF[edit]

In October 2019 Boeing was reportedly studying a re-engined 767-XF for entry into service around 2025, based on the 767-400ER with an extended landing gear to accommodate larger General Electric GEnx turbofan engines. The cargo market is the main target, but a passenger version super bb cream fresh matte maybelline be a cheaper alternative to the proposed New Midsize Airplane.[107]

Design[edit]

Overview[edit]

The 767 is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wings are swept at 31.5 degrees and optimized for a cruising speed of Mach 0.8 (533 mph or 858 km/h).[20] Each wing features a supercritical airfoil cross-section and is equipped with six-panel leading edge slats, single- and double-slotted flaps, inboard and outboard ailerons, and six spoilers.[7][108] The airframe further incorporates Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymercomposite material wing surfaces, Kevlarfairings and access panels, plus improved aluminum alloys, which together reduce overall weight by 1,900 pounds (860 kg) versus preceding aircraft.[7]

To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the 767 has a retractable tricycle landing gear with four wheels on each main gear and two for the nose gear.[7] The original wing and gear design accommodated the stretched 767-300 without major changes.[42] The 767-400ER features a larger, more widely spaced main gear with 777 wheels, tires, and brakes.[109] To prevent damage if the tail section contacts the runway surface during takeoff, 767-300 and 767-400ER models are fitted with a retractable tailskid.[109][110] The 767 has left-side exit doors near the front and rear of the aircraft.[26]

Close up view of a green Section 41, the nose section of a 767. Installation is not yet complete for the window panes.
The 767 has the same cockpit windows as the Boeing 757

In addition to shared avionics and computer technology, the 767 uses the same auxiliary power unit, electric power systems, and hydraulic parts as the 757.[32] A raised cockpit floor and the same forward cockpit windows result in similar pilot viewing angles.[111] Related design and functionality allows 767 pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate the 757 and share the same seniority roster with pilots of either aircraft.[19][112]

Flight systems[edit]

The early 767 flight deck with EFISand EICASscreens allowed two-crew operations, later 767-400 had larger displays, while earlier models could be upgraded

The original 767 flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display Electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) and engine indication and crew alerting system (EICAS) information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer.[19][113] The CRTs replace conventional electromechanical instruments found on earlier aircraft.[19] An enhanced flight management system, improved over versions used on early 747s,[19] automates navigation and other functions, while an automatic landing system facilitates CAT IIIb instrument landings in low visibility situations.[7][114] The 767 became the first aircraft to receive CAT IIIb certification from the FAA for landings with 980 feet (300 m) minimum visibility in 1984.[115] On the 767-400ER, the cockpit layout is simplified further with six Rockwell Collins liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, and adapted for similarities with the 777 and the Next Generation 737.[116] To retain operational commonality, the LCD screens can be programmed to display information in the same manner as earlier 767s.[60] In 2012, Boeing and Rockwell Collins launched a further 787-based cockpit upgrade for the 767, featuring three landscape-format LCD screens that can display two windows each.[117]

The 767 is equipped with three redundant hydraulic systems for operation of control surfaces, landing gear, and utility actuation systems.[118] Each engine powers a separate hydraulic system, and the third system uses electric pumps.[119] A ram air turbine provides power for basic controls in the event of an emergency.[120] An early form of fly-by-wire is employed for spoiler operation, utilizing electric signaling instead of traditional control cables.[7] The fly-by-wire system reduces weight and allows independent operation of individual spoilers.[7]

Interior[edit]

Economy classwith two aisles and seven seats per row in 2–3–2 layout

The 767 features a twin-aisle cabin with a typical configuration of six abreast in business class and seven across in economy.[26] The standard seven abreast, 2–3–2 economy class layout places approximately 87 percent of all seats at a window or aisle.[121] As a result, the aircraft can be largely occupied before center seats need to be filled,[7] and each passenger is no more than one seat from the aisle.[121] It is possible to configure the aircraft with extra seats for up to an eight abreast configuration,[26] but this is less common.[122]

The 767 interior introduced larger overhead bins and more lavatories per passenger than previous aircraft.[123] The bins are wider to accommodate garment bags without folding, and strengthened for heavier carry-on items.[123] A single, large galley is installed near the aft doors, allowing for more efficient meal service and simpler ground resupply.[123] Passenger and service doors are an overhead plug type, which retract upwards,[26] and commonly used doors can be equipped with an electric-assist system.[7]

In 2000, a 777-style interior, known as the Boeing Signature Interior, debuted on the 767-400ER.[124] Subsequently, adopted for all new-build 767s, the Signature Interior features even larger overhead bins, indirect lighting, and sculpted, curved panels.[125] The 767-400ER also received larger windows derived from the 777.[126] Older 767s can be retrofitted with the Signature Interior.[124] Some operators have adopted a simpler modification known as the Enhanced Interior, featuring curved ceiling panels and indirect lighting with minimal modification of cabin architecture,[127] as well as aftermarket modifications such as the NuLook 767 package by Heath Tecna.[128]

Variants[edit]

Underside view of a jet in-flight. Each wing of the two wings have an engine. Towards the left are the horizontal stabilizers.
Planform view of a 767-300, showing its 156 ft 1 in (47.57 m) wide wing with a 3,050 ft2(283.3 m2) area and a 31.5° sweepback,[129]for a 7.99:1 aspect ratio

The 767 has been produced in three fuselage lengths.[26] These debuted in progressively larger form as the 767-200, 767-300, and 767-400ER.[26][130] Longer-range variants include the 767-200ER and 767-300ER,[130] while cargo models include the 767-300F, a production freighter,[131] and conversions of passenger 767-200 and 767-300 models.[132]

When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number (767) and the variant designator, e.g. –200 or –300, into a truncated form, e.g. "762" or "763".[133] Subsequent to the capacity number, designations may append the range identifier,[133][134] though -200ER and -300ER are company marketing designations and not certificated as such.[132] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft type designator system uses a similar numbering scheme, but adds a preceding manufacturer letter;[135] all variants based on the 767-200 and 767-300 are classified under the codes "B762" and "B763"; the 767-400ER receives the designation of "B764".[135]

767-200[edit]

The 767-200 was the original model and entered service with United Airlines in 1982.[4] The type has been used primarily by mainline U.S. carriers for domestic routes between major hub centers such as Los Angeles to Washington.[4][54] The 767-200 was the first aircraft to be used on transatlantic ETOPS flights, beginning with TWA on February 1, 1985 under 90-minute diversion rules.[46][54] Deliveries for the variant totaled 128 aircraft.[2] There were 52 examples of the model in commercial service as of July 2018[update], almost entirely as freighter conversions.[3] The type's competitors included the Airbus A300 and A310.[136]

The 767-200 was produced until 1987 when production switched to the extended-range 767-200ER.[42] Some early 767-200s were subsequently upgraded to extended-range specification.[54] In 1998, Boeing began offering 767-200 conversions to 767-200SF (Special Freighter) specification for cargo use,[137] and Israel Aerospace Industries has been licensed to perform cargo conversions since 2005.[138] The conversion process entails the installation of a side cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and added freight monitoring and safety equipment.[132] The 767-200SF was positioned as a replacement for Douglas DC-8 freighters.[137]

767-2C[edit]

A commercial freighter version of the Boeing 767-200 with wings from the -300 series and an updated flightdeck was first flown on 29 December 2014.[139] A military tanker variant of the Boeing 767-2C is being developed for the USAF as the KC-46.[139] Boeing is building two aircraft as commercial freighters which will be used to obtain Federal Aviation Administration certification, a further two Boeing 767-2Cs will be modified as military tankers.[139] As of 2014[update], Boeing does not have customers for the freighter.[139]

767-200ER[edit]

A 767-200ER of its launch customer, El Al. The -200ER externally similar to the -200

The 767-200ER was the first extended-range model and entered service with El Al in 1984.[43] The type's increased range is due to extra fuel capacity and higher maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of up to 395,000 lb (179,000 kg).[42][44] The additional fuel capacity is accomplished by using the center tank's dry dock to carry fuel. The non-ER variant's center tank is what is called cheek tanks; two interconnected halves in each wing root with a dry dock in between. The center tank is also used on the -300ER and -400ER variants.[140]: 35 

This version was originally offered with the same engines as the 767-200, while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and General Electric CF6 engines later became available.[42] The 767-200ER was the first 767 to complete a non-stop transatlantic journey, and broke the flying distance record for a twinjet airliner on April 17, 1988 with an Air Mauritius flight from Halifax, Nova Scotia to Port Louis, Mauritius, covering 8,727 nmi (16,200 km; 10,000 mi).[4] The 767-200ER has been acquired by international operators seeking smaller wide-body aircraft for long-haul routes such as What is not covered under the 1st amendment York to Beijing.[4][44] Deliveries of the type totaled 121 with no unfilled orders.[2] As of July 2018, 21 examples of passenger and freighter conversion versions were in airline service.[3] The type's main competitors of the time included the Airbus A300-600R and the A310-300.[49]

767-300[edit]

The 767-300, the first stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Japan Airlines in 1986.[43] The type features a 21.1-foot (6.43 m) fuselage extension over the 767-200, achieved by additional sections inserted before and after the wings, for an overall length of 180.25 ft (54.9 m).[42] Reflecting the growth potential built into the original 767 design, the wings, engines, and most systems were largely unchanged on the 767-300.[42] An optional mid-cabin exit door is positioned ahead of the wings on the left,[26] while more powerful Pratt & Whitney PW4000 and Rolls-Royce RB211 engines later became available.[49] The 767-300's increased capacity has been used on high-density routes within Asia and Europe.[141] The 767-300 was produced from 1986 until 2000. Deliveries for the type totaled 104 aircraft with no unfilled orders remaining.[2] As of July 2018, 34 of the variant were in airline service.[3] The type's main competitor was the Airbus A300.[49]

767-300ER[edit]

Side quarter view of twin-engine jetliner in flight, with extended gear; bare metal with red, white, and blue cheatlines, as well as two "A"s and a stylized eagle on the tail.
American Airlinesintroduced the 767-300ER in 1988, this example was retrofitted with winglets

The 767-300ER, the extended-range version of the 767-300, entered service with American Airlines in 1988.[43] The type's increased range was made possible by greater fuel tankage and a higher MTOW of 407,000 lb (185,000 kg).[49] Design improvements allowed the available MTOW to increase to 412,000 lb (187,000 kg) by 1993.[49] Power is provided by Pratt & Whitney PW4000, General Electric CF6, or Rolls-Royce RB211 engines.[49] the 767-300ER comes in three exit configurations: the baseline configuration has four main cabin doors and four over-wing window exits, the second configuration has six main cabin doors and two over-wing window exits; and the third configuration has six main cabin doors, as well as two smaller doors that are located behind the wings.[26] Typical routes for the type include Los Angeles to Frankfurt.[50] The combination of increased capacity and range offered by the 767-300ER has been particularly attractive to both new and existing 767 operators.[130] It is the most successful version of the aircraft, with more orders placed than all other variants combined.[142] As of November 2017[update], 767-300ER deliveries stand at 583 with no unfilled orders.[2] There were 376 examples in service as of July 2018[update].[3] The type's main competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[143]

At its 1990s peak, a new 767-300ER was valued at $85 million, dipping to around $12 million in 2018 for a 1996 build.[144]

767-300F[edit]

The 767-300F, the production freighter version of the 767-300ER, entered service with UPS Airlines in 1995.[145] The 767-300F can hold up to 24 standard 88-by-125-inch (220 by 320 cm) pallets on its main deck and up to 30 LD2 unit load devices on the lower deck,[26] with a total cargo volume of 15,469 cubic feet (438 m3).[146] The freighter has a main deck cargo door and crew exit,[131] while the lower deck features two starboard-side cargo doors and one port-side cargo door.[26] A general market version with onboard freight-handling systems, refrigeration capability, and crew facilities was delivered to Asiana Airlines on August 23, 1996.[59] As of August 2019[update], 767-300F deliveries stand at 161 with 61 unfilled orders.[2] Airlines operated 222 examples of the freighter variant and freighter conversions in July 2018.[3]

In June 2008, All Nippon Airways took delivery of the first 767-300BCF (Boeing Converted Freighter), a modified passenger-to-freighter model.[147] The conversion work was performed in Singapore by ST Aerospace Services, the first supplier to offer a 767-300BCF program,[147] and involved the addition of a main deck cargo door, strengthened main deck floor, and additional freight monitoring and safety equipment.[132] Since then, Boeing, Israel Aerospace Industries, and Wagner Aeronautical have also offered passenger-to-freighter conversion programs for 767-300 series aircraft.[148]

767-400ER[edit]

The 767-400ER, the first Boeing wide-body jet resulting from two fuselage stretches,[149] entered service with Continental Airlines in 2000.[43] The type business sales inside account executive fedex a 21.1-foot (6.43-metre) stretch over the 767-300, for a total length of 201.25 feet (61.3 m).[150] The wingspan is also increased by 14.3 feet (4.36 m) through the addition of raked wingtips.[59] The exit configuration uses six main cabin doors and two smaller exit doors behind the wings, similar to certain 767-300ERs.[26] Other differences include an updated cockpit, redesigned landing gear, and 777-style Signature Interior.[151] Power is provided by uprated General Electric CF6 engines.[132]

The FAA granted approval for the 767-400ER to operate 180-minute ETOPS flights before it entered service.[152] Because its fuel capacity was not increased over preceding models, the 767-400ER has a range of 5,625 nautical miles (10,418 km),[153] less than previous extended-range 767s.[68] No 767-400 version was developed.

The longer-range 767-400ERX was offered in July 2000[154] before being cancelled a year later,[69] leaving the 767-400ER as the sole version of the largest 767.[60] Boeing dropped the 767-400ER and the -200ER from its pricing list in 2014.[155]

A total of 37 767-400ERs were delivered to the variant's two airline customers, Continental Airlines (now merged with United Airlines) and Delta Air Lines, with no unfilled orders.[2] All 37 examples of the -400ER were in service in July 2018.[3] One additional example was produced as a military testbed, and later sold as a VIP transport.[156] The type's closest competitor is the Airbus A330-200.[157]

Military and government[edit]

Versions of the 767 serve in a number of military and government applications, with responsibilities ranging from airborne surveillance and refueling to cargo and VIP transport. Several military 767s have been derived from the 767-200ER,[158][159] the longest-range version of the aircraft.[44][131]

  • Airborne Surveillance Testbed – the Airborne Optical Adjunct (AOA) was modified from the prototype 767-200 for a United States Army program, under a contract signed with the Strategic Air Command in July 1984.[160] Intended to evaluate the feasibility of using airborne optical sensors to detect and track bank of america edd activate intercontinental ballistic missiles, the modified aircraft first flew on August 21, 1987.[161] Alterations included a large "cupola" or hump on the top of the aircraft from above the cockpit to just behind the trailing edge of the wings,[160] and a pair of ventral fins below the rear fuselage.[161] Inside the cupola was a suite of infrared seekers used for tracking theater ballistic missile launches.[162] The aircraft was later renamed as the Airborne Surveillance Testbed (AST).[163] Following the end of the AST program in 2002, the aircraft was retired for scrapping.[164]
  • E-767 – the Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWACS) platform for the Japan Self-Defense Forces; it is essentially the Boeing E-3 Sentry mission package on a 767-200ER platform.[61] E-767 modifications, completed on 767-200ERs flown from the Everett factory to Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Wichita, Kansas, include strengthening to accommodate a dorsal surveillance radar system, engine nacelle alterations, as well as electrical and interior changes.[63] Japan operates four E-767s. The first E-767s were delivered in March 1998.[62]
  • KC-767 Tanker Transport – the 767-200ER-based aerial refueling platform operated by the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare),[165] and the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[75] Modifications conducted by Boeing Integrated Defense Systems include the addition of a fly-by-wire refueling boom, strengthened flaps, and optional auxiliary fuel tanks, as well as structural reinforcement and modified avionics.[71] The four KC-767Js ordered by Japan have been delivered.[75] The Aeronautica Militare received the first of its four KC-767As in January 2011.[166]
  • KC-767 Advanced Tanker – the 767-200ER-based aerial tanker developed for the USAF KC-X tanker competition.[73] It is an updated version of the KC-767, originally selected as the USAF's new tanker aircraft in 2003, designated KC-767A,[167] and then dropped amid conflict of interest allegations.[73] The KC-767 Advanced Tanker is derived from studies for a longer-range cargo version of the 767-200ER,[159][168] and features a fly-by-wire refueling boom, a remote vision refueling system, and a 767-400ER-based flight deck with LCD screens and head-up displays.[93]
  • KC-46 - a 767-based tanker, not derived from the KC-767, awarded as part of the KC-X contract for the USAF.[92]
  • Tanker conversions – the 767 MMTT or Multi-Mission Tanker Transport is a 767-200ER-based aircraft operated by the Colombian Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana) and modified by Israel Aerospace Industries.[169] In 2013, the Brazilian Air Force ordered two 767-300ER tanker conversions from IAI for its KC-X2 program.[170]
  • E-10 MC2A - the Northrop Grumman E-10 was to be a 767-400ER-based replacement for the USAF's 707-based E-3 Sentry AWACS, Northrop Grumman E-8 Joint STARS, and RC-135SIGINT aircraft.[171] The E-10 would have included an all-new AWACS system, with a powerful active electronically scanned array (AESA) that was also capable of jamming enemy aircraft or missiles.[172] One 767-400ER aircraft was built as a testbed for systems integration, but the program was terminated in January 2009 and the prototype was later sold to Bahrain as a VIP transport.[156]

Undeveloped variants[edit]

767-X[edit]

See also: Boeing 777 § Background

In 1986, Boeing announced plans for a partial double-deck Boeing 767 design. The aircraft would have combined the Boeing 767-300 with a Boeing 757 cross section mounted over the rear fuselage. The Boeing 767-X would have also featured extended wings and a wider cabin. The 767-X did not get enough interest from airlines to launch and the model was shelved in 1988 in favor of the Boeing 777.[173][174]

767-400ERX[edit]

In March 2000, Boeing was to launch the 259-seat 767-400ERX with an initial order for three from Kenya Airways with deliveries planned for 2004, as it was proposed to Lauda Air. Increased gross weight and a tailplane fuel tank would have boosted its range by 1,110 to 12,025 km (600 to 6,490 nmi), and GE could offer its 65,000–68,000 lbf (290–300 kN) CF6-80C2/G2.[175] Rolls-Royce offered its 68,000–72,000 lbf (300–320 kN) Trent 600 for the 767-400ERX and the Boeing 747X.[176]

Offered in July, the longer-range -400ERX would have a strengthened wing, fuselage and landing gear for a 15,000 lb (6.8 t) higher MTOW, up to 465,000 lb (210.92 t). Thrust would rise to 72,000 lbf (320 kN) for better takeoff performance, with the Trent 600 or the General Electric/Pratt & Whitney Engine Alliance GP7172, also offered on the 747X. Range would increase by 525 nmi (950 km) to 6,150 nmi (11,390 km), with an additional fuel tank of 2,145 gallons (8,120 L) in the horizontal tail. The 767-400ERX would offer the capacity of the Airbus A330-200 with 3% lower fuel burn and costs.[154] Boeing cancelled the variant development in 2001.[69] Kenya Airways then switched its order to the 777-200ER.[177]

Operators[edit]

Main article: List of Boeing 767 operators

In July 2018, 742 aircraft were in airline service: 73 -200s, 632 -300 and 37 -400 with 65 -300F on order; the largest operators are Delta Air Lines (77), FedEx (60; largest cargo operator), UPS Airlines (59), United Airlines (51), Japan Airlines (35), All Nippon Airways (34).[3] The type's competitors included the Airbus A300 and A310.[136]

The largest 767 customers by orders have been Delta Air Lines with 117, FedEx Express (148), All Nippon Airways (96), American Airlines (88), and United Airlines (82).[1][2] Delta and United are the only customers of all -200, -300 and -400 passenger variants.[2] In July 2015, FedEx placed a firm order for 50 Boeing 767 freighters with deliveries from 2018 to 2023.[178]

Orders and deliveries[edit]

YearTotal202120202019201820172016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001
Orders 1,327461126401526494222423724361019811840
Deliveries 1,2322630432710131662126201213101212109243540
Year20001999199819971996199519941993199219911990198919881987198619851984198319821981198019791978
Orders 93038794322175421655210083572338152025114549
Deliveries 44444742433741516362603753372725295520

Boeing 767 orders and deliveries (cumulative, by year):

 Orders

 Deliveries

Model summary[edit]

Model SeriesICAO code[135]OrdersDeliveriesUnfilled orders
767-200 B762 128128
767-200ER B762 121121
767-2C (KC-46) B762 1025448
767-300 B763 104104
767-300ER B763 583583
767-300F B763 25120447
767-400ER B764 3838
Total 1,3271,23295

Accidents and notable incidents[edit]

As of February 2019[update], the Boeing 767 has been in 60 aviation occurrences,[182] including 19 hull-loss accidents.[183] Seven fatal crashes, including three hijackings, have resulted in a total of 854 occupant fatalities.[183][184]

The 767's first incident was Air Canada Flight 143, a 767-200, on July 23, 1983. The airplane ran out of fuel in-flight and had to glide with both engines out for almost 43 nautical miles (80 km) to an emergency landing at Gimli, Manitoba, Canada. The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the hydraulic systems for aerodynamic control. There were no fatalities and only minor injuries.[185] This aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider" after its landing site. The aircraft, registered C-GAUN, continued flying for Air Canada until its retirement in January 2008.[186]

The airliner's first fatal crash, Lauda Air Flight 004, occurred near Bangkok on May 26, 1991, following the in-flight deployment of the left engine thrust reverser on a 767-300ER; none of the 223 aboard survived; as a result of this accident all 767 thrust reversers were deactivated until a redesign was implemented.[187] Investigators determined that an electronically controlled valve, common to late-model Boeing aircraft, was to blame.[188] A new locking device was installed on all affected jetliners, including 767s.[189]

On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, a 767-300ER, crashed off Nantucket, Massachusetts, in international waters killing all 217 people on board.[190] The United States National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) concluded "not determined", but determined the probable cause to be a deliberate action by the first officer; Egypt disputed this conclusion.[191]

On April 15, 2002, Air China Flight 129, a 767-200ER, crashed into a hill amid inclement weather while trying to land at Gimhae International Airport in Busan, South Korea. The crash resulted in the death of 129 of the 166 people on board, and the cause was attributed to pilot error.[192]

The 767 has been involved in six hijackings, three resulting in loss of life,[182] for a combined total of 282 occupant fatalities.[184] On November 23, 1996, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961, a 767-200ER, was hijacked and crash-landed in the Indian Ocean near the Comoro Islands after running out of fuel, killing 125 out of the 175 persons on board;[193] survivors have been rare among instances of land-based aircraft ditching on water.[194][195] Two 767s were involved in the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001, resulting in the collapse of its two main towers. American Airlines Flight 11, a 767-200ER, crashed into the North Tower, killing all 92 people on board, and United Airlines Flight 175, a 767-200, crashed into the South Tower, with the death of all 65 on board. In addition, more than 2,600 people were killed in the towers or on the ground.[196] A foiled 2001 shoe bomb attempt that December involved an American Airlines 767-300ER.[197][198]

On November 1, 2011, LOT Polish Airlines Flight 16, a 767-300ER, safely landed at Warsaw Chopin Airport in Warsaw, Poland after a mechanical failure of the landing gear forced an emergency landing with the landing gear retracted. There were no injuries, but the aircraft involved was damaged and subsequently written off.[199][200][201] At the time of the incident, aviation analysts speculated that it may have been the first instance of a complete landing gear failure in the 767's service history.[202] Subsequent investigation determined that while a damaged hose had disabled the aircraft's primary landing gear extension system, an otherwise functional backup system was inoperative due to an accidentally deactivated circuit breaker.[200][201]

In January 2014, the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration issued a directive that ordered inspections of the elevators on more than 400 767s beginning in March 2014; the focus was on fasteners and other parts that can fail and cause the elevators to jam. The issue was first identified in 2000 and has been the subject of several Boeing service bulletins. The inspections and repairs are required to be completed within six years.[203] The aircraft has also had multiple occurrences of "uncommanded escape slide inflation" during maintenance or operations,[204] and during flight.[205][206] In late 2015, the FAA issued a preliminary directive to address the issue.[207]

On October 28, 2016, American Airlines Flight 383, a 767-300ER with 161 passengers and 9 crew members, aborted takeoff at Chicago O'Hare Airport following an uncontained failure of the right GE CF6-80C2 engine.[208] The engine failure, which hurled fragments over a considerable distance, caused a fuel leak, resulting in a fire under the right wing.[209] Fire and smoke entered the cabin. All passengers and crew evacuated the aircraft, with 20 passengers and one flight attendant sustaining minor injuries using the evacuation slides.[210][211]

On February 23, 2019, Atlas Air Flight 3591, a Boeing 767-300ERF air freighter operating for Amazon Air, crashed into Trinity Bay near Houston, Texas, while on descent into George Bush Intercontinental Airport; both pilots and the single passenger were killed. The cause was attributed to pilot error and spatial disorientation.[212]

Retirement and display[edit]

As new 767s roll off the assembly line, older models have been retired and stored or scrapped. One complete aircraft, N102DA—the first 767-200 to operate for Delta Air Lines and the twelfth example built, is currently on display.[213][214] Federal reserve bank services routing number lookup was withdrawn from use and stored at Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in 2006.[215] The exhibition aircraft, named "The Spirit of Delta" by the employees who helped purchase it in 1982, underwent restoration at the Delta Flight Museum in Atlanta, Georgia. The restoration was completed in 2010. As of 2020, "The Spirit of Delta" N102DA (Ship 102) remains the only complete intact 767-200 series aircraft to be placed on display.[214]

In 2013, a Brazilian entrepreneur purchased a 767-200 that had operated for the now-defunct carrier Transbrasil under the registration PT-TAC. The aircraft, which was sold at a bankruptcy auction, was placed on outdoor display in Taguatinga as part of a proposed commercial development. As of 2019[update], however, the development has not come to fruition. The aircraft is devoid of engines or landing gear, has deteriorated due to weather exposure and acts of vandalism, but remains publicly accessible to view.[216]

Specifications[edit]

Variant 767-200767-200ER 767-300767-300ER/F 767-400ER
Cockpit crew Two
3-class seats[217]174 (15F, 40J, 119Y) 210 (18F, 42J, 150Y) 243 (16F, 38J, 189Y)
2-class seats[217]214 (18J, 196Y) 261 (24J, 237Y) 296 (24J, 272Y)
1-class[217] (limit[218]) 245Y (290) 290Y (351) 409Y (375)
Cargo[219]3,070 ft3 / 86.9 m34,030 ft3 / 114.1 m3[a]4,905 ft3 / 138.9 m3
ULD[26]: 32–36 22 LD2s 30 LD2s 38 LD2s
Length[221]159 ft 2 in / 48.51 m 180 ft 3 in / 54.94 m 201 ft 4 in / 61.37 m
Wingspan[221]156 ft 1 in / 47.57 m 170 ft 4 in / 51.92 m
Wing 3,050 ft2 / 283.3 m2, 31.5° sweepback[129]3,130 ft2 / 290.7 m2[222]
Fuselage Exterior: 17 ft 9 in / 5.41 m height, 16 ft 6 in / 5.03 m width;[221] Cabin width: 186 in/ 4.72 m[26]: 30 
MTOW[219]315,000 lb / 142.9 t395,000 lb / 179.2 t 350,000 lb / 158.8 t412,000 lb / 186.9 t 450,000 lb / 204.1 t
Max. payload[219]73,350 lb (33.3 t)78,390 lb (35.6 t) 88,250 lb (40.0 t)96,560 lb (43.8 t)[b]101,000 lb (45.8 t)
OEW[219]176,650 lb / 80.1 t181,610 lb / 82.4 t 189,750 lb / 86.1 t198,440 lb / 90.0 t[c]229,000 lb / 103.9 t
Fuel capacity[219]std-ER: 16,700-24,140 US gal / 63.2-91.4 m3 (111,890-161,740 lb / 50.8-73.4 t )
Range[223]3,900 nmi
7,200 km[d][26]: 47 
6,590 nmi
12,200 km[e]
3,900 nmi
7,200 km[f][26]: 49 
5,980 nmi
11,070 km[g][i]
5,625 nmi
10,415 km[j]
Cruise speed Long range-Maximum: 459–486 kn (850–900 km/h) at altitude of 39,000 ft (12,000 m)[129]
Ceiling 43,100 ft (13,100 m)[218]
Takeoff[k][223]6,300 ft bank ozk jobs m / 8,150 ft 9,200 ft (2,800 m)[26]: 64 2,650 m / 8,700 ft 3,290 m / 10,800 ft
Engines (×2)[219]JT9D / PW4000 / CF6JT9D / PW4000 / CF6 / RB211PW4000 / CF6 / RB211 CF6 / PW4000
Thrust (×2)[219]48,000–52,500 lbf
214–234 kN
48,000–60,600 lbf
214–270 kN
48,000–60,600 lbf
214–270 kN
56,750–61,500 lbf
252–274 kN
60,600 lbf
270 kN

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^-300F: 15,469 ft3 / 438 m3, 24 88×108 in pallets[220]
  2. ^-300F: 119,000 lb (54.0 t)
  3. ^-300F: 190,000 lb / 86.1 t
  4. ^216 pax, 176,100 lb / 79.9 t OEW, ISA
  5. ^181 pax (15F/40J/126Y), CF6
  6. ^269 pax, 187,900 lb / 85.2 t OEW, ISA
  7. ^218 pax (18F/46J/154Y), PW4000
  8. ^52.7 tonnes payload
  9. ^-300F: 3,225 nmi / 6,025 km[h][220]
  10. ^245 pax (20F/50J/175Y), CF6
  11. ^MTOW, SL, 30 °C / 86 °F

Citations[edit]

Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_767

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Login or create a new account. ‘P2G12345678’. 24/7 asset tracking security at Accurate Logistics Electronic Freight Asset Tracking Electronic Asset Tracking gives you visibility into your supply chain 24 hours a day. Speed Post Tracking India offers details of your speed post courier status or India Post Courier status. The bad reviews below should be directed at the SELLER, not the TRACKING SITE. OGO Mobile App designed for the direct customers to Pick-up and deliver the packages and parcels. Once you have it: enter the usps tracking number (or tracking code, or ID number) in the search bar, without including any dashes or spaces; view the history and status information of your package. It will show my location using a global position system; shows our location, show their location tracking live in realtime. SH. Make sure you have the shipment number and the recipient's postal code, so we can tell you exactly where your parcel is. How to get Easy Post Tracking API credentials. 5K views Step 1. Patent pending technology. Sep 29, 2014 · How Accurate Are eBay's Estimated Delivery Dates? by: goldengirl : Mon Sep 29 18:51:00 2014: Not accurate. If you’ve received a notification, or one of our drivers has left you a calling card, you can rearrange a If your package is taking longer to be delivered than is indicated on the "Track Package" section in your order details, please contact Customer Support. net. net you can quickly track USPS® packages going to anywhere in the world. Enter Daylight Transport Tracking number / PRO No / BOL No in below web tracker system to track and trace your Express Freight, LTL Trucking Transportation, Shipment delivery status Information online. Notification about the tracking status can be sent through email and SMS. Enter your shipment’s tracking number and the corresponding recipient’s postal code here. Local Places - Places Near Me. OnTracker Android app #7 - Track24. Your package is given a tracking number so that it gets identifiable. You can use all the features for free before and after registration. Package Tracker Pro; Package Tracker Pro is one of the first real-time shipment tracking apps, and hence arguably the most popular in the circles. Click Here to view current status for your tracking no. international shipments.and Service Talk – Where is My Package (WIMP) and Accurate Scanning, February 2017. Track your packet by shipping id as a guest and register to get access to "My packages" feature. It can track orders on real time. Their packages would be audited from time to time and a new bulk rate will be negotiated. Whether the package is going across town, or across the world you can easily track your package. reddawayregional. Call 866-470-2776. We manage 4,000 properties in one county and this app makes finding and marking our properties very easy. It’s useful for anybody sending within the UK, to Europe, or the rest of the world, especially if you need to check that your parcel is going to arrive in time. Tracking. To keep the belt tension as low as possible, the pivoting movement should, wherever possible, be perpendicular to the median line of the arc of contact (plane A ↔ B). Yodel World Economy travels usually 3 to 5 days Oct 13, 2021 · 🗺 Faster and more accurate source maps using Parcel's new source maps library, which is written in Rust for a 20x performance boost over Parcel 1. Order status lookup, branded tracking page and multi-carrier tracking API for eCommerce. Improve your focus through physical reminder. With ten years of ongoing developer support, experimentation, and feedback, we’ve refined our hand tracking to deliver the best and most flexible hand tracking available. Start tracking now. Click to expand Can't wait to give a mini review of it. My Shipments. Following are a few options for searching multiple companies: FindPare is a service that helps you compare prices, delivery times and shipping information for thousands of items across both local and global online retailers. The ring features scientifically validated sleep tracking and personalized guidance. TrackingGo is a third-party tracking service provider. Tracking numbers are an essential part of of the mail system, and to online businesses and e-commerce companies as well. Cell Phone Tracker. Our online tracking system is the fastest way to get up to date information on your parcel’s location within the DHL Parcel UK network. For customized tracking see MyBTX. most importantly, all the data regarding your order is available Tracking numbers exist to record a package’s progress in real time from its point of origin to its destination, meaning that it’s possible to keep a completely accurate account of where your mail is at any given time. The Flash Trac GPS Tracking Platform. In addition special services for air cargo, containers and post. Established in 1997. All directions. All Rights Reserved. 95 a month. Learn more about the advantages of joining Canada's largest courier network and ongoing promotions. Customers check tracking 3. Tracking 2 day, next day and Yodel World Economy packages can be done via Yodel Direct, where the Yodel parcel number must be entered. Aug 6, 2014. Go to your orders, click the order that is shipped by Accurate, see its details and you will either find the Accurate tracking number or a link/button that enables Accurate parcelsapp tracking. You’ll get real-time tracking information and deliver updates for any FedEx packages. Aug 17, 2021 · Track Fastway Courier Australia Parcels Shipment & Delivery. $0. Track your package with SMS notifications. It takes the tracking facilities from the most renowned courier and logistics companies such as FedEx, DTDC, TNT, USP, 2Go, Amazon, and more and integrates them into one place to ensure that people don’t have scour the web to be able to track their courier. If your package says it was delivered on UPS. Hermes parcel tracking. Go to secure post website. Access over 150 million parcel records in over 3,000 counties - covering more than 95% of the U. Once you get it, enter it in the box in the top of this page, press the button and start tracking Accurate's shipment to make use of the online tracker. Package tracking has never been easier! Track your shipments and get updates all from one location. However, if your parcel tracking has stopped for more than two or three days, there could be complications with the delivery itself. While some tracking updates are received through automated systems, others require DoorStepParcel tracking teams to regularly reach out to carriers. g. 100% free. The process of package tracking is typically done by scanning the package’s barcode, which is usually found on the outside of the package. ,” you’ll be able to track its location in real time and know exactly how many stops the delivery driver has to make Apr 04, 2021 · Advanced Web Ranking is the most accurate, long-standing, white-label SERP rank tracking tool accessible from any device. ”. Read More. If a package qualifies for the USPS Delivery Instructions™ service, you can tell USPS where to leave a package at your address, send it to a different address, or send it to your Post Office. Simply enter your product code and ticket number for a real-time track and trace update on the status of your item. We are able to easily track shipments from hundreds of carriers. by the tracking number for free. Free tracking tools for both US and Asendia Tracking is our fully integrated tracking platform that offers both retailer and end consumer views. Within the US, in spite of the ARFCOM shipping curse, it is about 95% accurate. With over 30+ powerful features, Neatspy is designed to meet all your phone monitoring needs. How it works. We will identify your parcel’s location in 1-2 seconds. Track me on the map, using the track my location services. Accurate Background, LLC Atrium Corporate Center 3800 Golf Road, Suite 120 Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. Express Logistics makes shipping easy with quote comparisons from dozens of LTL carriers and thousands of TL carriers. Great Tracking App This is a great tracking app for all deliveries from various different companies and can even track globally - I like the way that for most deliveries it automatically detects these details and updates them for example I order from companies like Wish and SHOP picks up on the delivery information as soon as it’s on the way from Hong Kong, also if for some reason it hasn You can track domestic and international parcels using the our tracking service. Computerized Services and tracking of consignment at all Branch. WE MAKE YOUR LOGISTICS SIMPLE. Rating: 4. Stay in the know for where your parcel goes. Dip the test wand into urine for 10 seconds — expect to test 10-20 times per cycle. * You will be redirected to your results after clicking above link. Although delays and issues are rare, they can occur for various reasons. It's often the quickest way to track a package, even when I don't know which carrier was used, because it uses data from multiple sources. Contents Hide. We get your products moving, headache-free. We provide you with the most powerful parcel tracking system for any post office. Daylight Transport LTL Freight Tracking. You may track by a BTX air waybill from the top of any page on our website. The tracking number in the format of the Universal Postal Union looks like RA123456789CN, where the first 2 letters are the type of package and the last 2 letters are the code of the country of origin. USPS Mail Tracking is good for packages too large for Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail delivery, only Use track and trace to pinpoint your parcel in the Netherlands at any time of the day. Neatspy is a leading, professional and reliable solution for tracking an Android cell phone. We use the first 3 digits to automatically send the request to the correct airline. Some UPS and FedEx packages are handed over to your local post office to complete the delivery. Available instantly on compatible devices. Fedex Advanced Shipment Tracking Parcelforce How to track the shipment: To track your shipment, you need to take a few simple steps. Nov 21, 2013 · Package Tracking. Address checker. Just simply enter your FedEx tracking number above. 8. $14. We are unable to track your parcel without the tracking number. Jan 24, 2017 · Is Parcel Force online tracking supposed to be instant? 24 January 2017 at 12:26PM edited 30 November -1 at 1:00AM in Ebay, Auctions, Car Boot & Jumble Sales 2 replies 1. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, USPS has reduced their scanning frequency, or is delaying their sorting and delivery times. Today, ELS works on over 99% of active Android devices (running Android OS version 4. Track us in realtime, find my location with track using gps realtime tracking. Jul 24, 2013 · Not really. Tracking number format very much depends on the regulations of each postal/courier service. Step 3. Enter Tracking number Track. Feb 5, 2015. In this way you can also track the cell phone at the same time. ONE tracking – keep track of your international shipments With PARCEL. On Google Calendar. No more over or under-estimating your time. and parcels. To download the images using book and page: From the Parcel Map table below, click on the range of numbers that your Parcel Map number is in. Android Emergency Location Service (ELS) is a supplemental service that sends enhanced location directly from Android handsets to emergency services when an emergency call is placed. We pride ourselves on providing the best transport and shipping services available allover the world. From metropolitan areas to rural outposts, you can count on Accurate Cargo to deliver the goods at the right time, the right place, the right way. Can I reroute my package to a different location before the first delivery attempt? May 24, 2018 · Now instead of knowing your Amazon package will arrive “before 8 p. Supported Devices: It’s a shipment tracking app for Android & iOS. Already an ABF Customer? Sign in to view your shipments. (NYSE: XPO) is a top ten global logistics provider of cutting-edge supply chain solutions to the most successful companies in the world. Enter the tracking number of the tracking form with the title "All In One Package Tracking" 3. To track your USPS package, all you need is the package tracking number. XPO Logistics, Inc. You can request that your package be left with a neighbor or held at a Post Office Apr 23, 2020 · Part 1: #1 Best Tracking App for Android No Root – Neatspy. Total Value. and More! There is absolutely no match to what LandGlide does. 2. If the airline is not supported or you want to select a specific airline you can do this manually after tracking. If you have questions about tracking your shipment, contact your Account Executive. If the info was available, I could always find it on 17track. Oct 30, 2021 · Courier Name : Accurate Cargo. All you need is your tracking number! USPS provides local and international courier services at affordable rates. Free tracking tools for both US and Under your Account tab, click on Order History. Upon receiving your dispute, Accurate Background will promptly reinvestigate the specific information/records that you are disputing. Efficient supply chains rely on fast, accurate, effective tracking of raw materials, products, shipments and fleets, wherever they are in the world. Our GPS tracking devices have accurate and updated maps for the user’s convenience. Minute accurate time tracking, lightning fast. Nov 13, 2021 · United Parcel Service (UPS) has launched a unique and fascinating service for its customers. Wait, after a few seconds the tracking result will be displayed. It is one of the famous shipping providers like LBC Express tracking, USPS tracking, DHL tracking and china post tracking. 3. Jul 29, 2020 · This Easy Post Tracking API endpoint allows a developer to integrate postal package tracking to his application. Go to the start page https://track24. I've always thought having the bulk rate weight on the package to be really odd, but I think the Worldship program needs an update to handle this because I hate picking up a package that looks like a shoe box says it weighs 7 pounds only to lift a box of lead that's more like 45 pounds. Free Download. You can also find the updated speed post charges ,speed post customer care number and India post branches as well. We'll e-mail you as soon as your parcel has been delivered. Such shipments also may be shipped with Singapore Post, HuaSheng Logistics, GCT, WB, ALLJOY, UNI-TOP and several other postal providers that delivery parcels via China Postal Service. It does not track to destinations in international shipments. Go to your orders, click the order that is shipped by Accurate Cargo, see its details and you will either find the Accurate Cargo tracking number or a link/button that enables Accurate Cargo parcelsapp tracking. Dec 19, 2019 · Amazon Map Tracking is a handy feature that lets you see where your Amazon delivery is in real time. Is Parcel Monitor accurate? Shipping & Tracking I used the ParcelMonitor site to track a PostNL order and it showed that the parcel had arrived in my country; but other sites like 17TRACK and Cainiao say “the item is ready for shipment” for over a month. View current land use shaded by parcel. Pricing: Free to download Download: OnTracker Android app. Track the location of any phone or tablet with complete peace of mind. Find your P2G reference number displayed next to the order in question, e. design&usability. Jan 07, 2020 · Usually, the tracking system indicates if the package is stuck in transit. Any product, any destination. EMS China (中国邮政速递物流) is China's national express postal service provider, delivering express mails and parcels across China and internationally. The company has operated as a franchise since 1984, with franchising at the regional and courier level. Aug 25, 2021 · A property’s deed in the county recorder's office is the only document that legally defines the property boundary. Because I sent them International Signed For, I got a tracking number to use on royalmail. Jul 13, 2019 · The premium plan of AfterShip parcel tracking software starts at around ₹680 per month. All they can do is look at the same information you see on your computer screen. ). If you know of any airlines offering tracking that is not included please contact us! USF Reddaway Tracking. Here, choose the tracking number of the package you want to track. Phone. Tab 3, Section 5, Scanning Reference Guide, pg. Insert the wand into the Mira Analyzer. Click on the corresponding Order Date and under Delivery Date you will see Tracking Number. Try: 7428740160 Call:+1 888-420-8960 www. Any undeliverable mail is returned for free as well, which means merchants will have no issues refunding customers who never receive their purchase. Our management system provides customers and business owners a clean interface which helps keeping track and labeling each code, PAPER FREE! Notifications. View tracking information in the Transactional Details window - This window displays the shipping and status information, along with the delivery and destination addresses, weight, mail class and postage cost for the selected package. population. Get Mailtrack. More than 100 Russian and international postal and courier services. To track and manage any kind of Yodel delivery with a parcel reference that is 8, 13 or 16 digits in length or begins with the letters JD, MyYodel can be used. Sep 22, 2021 · 💡 Pro tip: website tracking isn’t limited to websites you own; you can also track traffic on competitor websites with tools like SimilarWeb, Ahrefs, and Semrush. Amazon Logistics TBA tracking from USA, Canada and UK Jul 22, 2019 · USPS tracking is only good in the US. 2 A system that receives and stores all tracking scan data, from acceptance to delivery, and is used by employees and customers for shipment tracking information. Click the link for directions on how to proceed if an order has not arrived. Review the List of Restricted & Prohibited Items. Your package is given a tracking number so that it gets identifiable. Watch as the App’s advanced algorithm provides highly accurate & personalized information about your fertility window. Google may use the data collected to contextualize and personalize the ads of its own advertising network. Get the Test and Production Keys from the Account page. Dec 16, 2020 · The strategic collaboration between Microsoft and FedEx is allowing this worldwide logistics company to execute on a vision for package tracking that is of critical importance worldwide. The scanner does track some of the mail carrier’s activities at mailboxes along their route that has barcode stickers, but these only provide simple tracking capabilities. Never lose a tracking code or an awb ever again. Rush creates a page on your website, NOT a sub-domain of another website. Google utilizes the data collected to track and examine the use of this site, to prepare reports on its activities and share them with other Google services. This web-based order tracking app enables you to manage everything inside Shopify. The vast majority (90%+) of stuff I track at work is delivered on that date. Our USF Reddaway tracking support only by PRO number. Operating six days a week, we take your products from point A to point Z. Track Shipments Demo Video Watch this demo video to learn how you can track your shipments in ShipStation and with the Branded Tracking feature. Hermes is the leading expert for integrated solutions along the supply chain and a partner for national and international trading companies. To check whether there has been Robust, accurate hand tracking is one of the biggest challenges in 21st century computing. Please enter the tracking number you want to search. Repeat customers spend 33% more than new customers, and businesses say that over 50% of their revenue comes from repeat buyers. 99 per shipment. You should see a 20 digit number that can be used to track your package on USPS. Why has my parcel tracking stopped updating? Firstly please accept our apologies that you are having to check out this section of our website. Track your USF Reddaway packages by PRO, PO or BOL. Turnaround Estimates please visit our shipping deadlines page to buy 1st edition pokemon cards which products and shipping methods will meet your deadline. The tracking number should be available for you on the merchant's website/app. **** Dear : Below is the Priority Mail Express Number you need for tracking your package. Always reliable. We recommend using the lookup tools provided by the major carriers (i. Please do not respond. Enquiry - 011 - 41671819 / 9350204755 Complain - +91 99101 04755 [email protected] Track parcels/shipments with companies like UPS, DHL, TNT and FedEx. Click an existing meeting click Edit event. With Parcel Panel Order Tracking, you get access to a graphical analysis of order status, which helps you discover which deliveries are under an exception. Packages can be tracked online or text updates can be requested. For retailers, it works seamlessly with your existing systems, giving you full visibility of all your parcels with customisable reports and complete up to date accurate tracking information. Entering this number on Friday resulted in a message saying that the parcel hadn’t yet been entered into Accurate Tracking Systems is a telematic company providing innovative tailored made solutions of vehicle tracking, fleet management, fuel monitoring and home security systems. Help. Accurate Transport is the go-to logistics carrier for businesses like yours. If you're already signed in, you can also visit My Orders under "My Account. Collaborating a solid up to speed team to ensure that our clients’ asset is secure 24/7. We believe in providing the best courier tracking service for our customers and work hard to maintain it. Track FedEx Packages Online. 1 /Jelly Bean and above). Click on the green "Track!" button. Please correct this or start another shipment. The app lets you track packages from all over the world. To enhance your package tracking experience, you can link a product detail page to each item on your list and set 20-/30- or 60-day deadlines. We make all efforts to ensure the data presented here is up to date and accurate Track your DHL Parcel UK delivery quickly and easily using our real time track and trace service. BOL # / Shipper Ack or PO / Customer Phone Number. Then select your Parcel Map number to download. If your parcel has stopped tracking for a few days, then there may be complications with your delivery. If you are unsure of your order number, you can find it on your booking confirmation email. Total merchandise value cannot exceed $2,499. Using our service is simple and easy to use. 2006-07-23. eTrucks IFTA is fuel tax reporting software that is flexible enough to track and manage IFTA fuel tax for a single truck, or for an entire fleet. © Amazon. Track Your Shipment. Fast and accurate. May 12, 2016 · UPS has finally rolled out true package tracking, letting you see exactly where the truck carrying your item is on a map right from your smartphone or PC. Check to see if an address you're sending to is considered a residential or rural location, or whether we offer a Saturday delivery service there with Dec 18, 2014 · The tracking # is the wrong formatthis got to be a scam! **** This is a post-only message. It is important to note that the tracking statuses can sometimes take up to 24-48 hours to be updated, so do not panic yet if your parcel has not changed its China EMS (ePacket) Tracking. I have shipped 200,000 media mail parcels, and the estimated delivery date ebay displays for media mail is the earliest possible date of a range of business sales inside account executive fedex in which it could arrive. When you register to our service, once the parcel is being added on our management system, you can opt for Turn Attendance tracking on or off. Enter any landline or mobile phone number, see location information online Oura Ring: the most accurate sleep and activity tracker is all about you: it measures the physiological signals of your body, understands your lifestyle, and guides you to make your own optimal daily choices. Ordertracker accepts any international tracking number, it is an universal tracking website to track a parcel on a global level such as "track my parcel" with accurate informations about your shipment. स्पीड पोस्ट ट्रैकिंग May 26, 2021 · Other Package Tracking Services. 'Can't find your package?' link only appears if the latest estimated arrival date has passed. All items come with unbiased reviews, a FindPare smart rating and accurate specifications. Track all your FedEx shipments with TrackNow. Borderless Logistic. If the parcel has not moved for some time now, then most likely some of the above mention reasons have occurred. Get Mira Today. The data isn't 100% accurate but should give you a relative understanding of how your website traffic compares to other sites. Parcel Panel Order Tracking. Sign up for tracking update by text on the order confirmation page. Click on “Check Status”. Track on a map allows you to track them or you on the map. ONE tracking, you always keep an eye on your international shipments and can always check their current status. Jul 01, 2021 · Ship24 Global Package Tracking Platform - Enter tracking numbers, get worldwide couriers tracking updates on international parcels & packages delivery from China Post (EMS), USPS, UPS, Royal Mail, Asendia, and track orders and shipments from AliExpress, Joom, eBay, BangGood, Lazada, ASOS, Wish, Gearbest with ship24 global package tracking solution. For help finding the BOL number, take a look at a BOL example. net you can quickly find the status of your shipment/package with just a few clicks of the mouse. They may be able to interpret some of the jargonhowever. What is package tracking ? Package tracking is the process of tracking the delivery of a parcel, shipment, cargo, or other item using the postal service. The best package tracking for you. You must be aware of this service. P 1-617-275-5511. Accurate Logistics uses a combination of static and covert tracking devices, as well as people and systems to actively monitor your valuable cargo while in transit. Dec 29, 2004 · Dec 29, 2004. Cell Phone Tracker is developed for the people who have a valid reason to track a phone in a safe way. Originally posted by: Evadman. It is not unusual for a package to go for more than 24 hours without a scan while in transit – your package may still be traveling as intended. Track USPS Packages Online. You can add for tracking as many parcels as needed. Track up to 5 shipments at one time. The Flash Trac platform provides comprehensive real-time GPS tracking for businesses seeking powerful telematics monitoring at very affordable price with no contracts. Once you've booked a cheap Hermes delivery with Parcel2Go Google Analytics is a web analysis service provided by Google. If you haven’t, then let us inform you that it is a new fantastic service using which the UPS customers can track where their packages are in real time. Select Date Range. Starting May 2020, domestic USA customers have reported either delays in receiving shipments or that tracking has not updated past the "Shipment Received: Package Acceptance Pending: status. Canada Post's call centre is in New Brunswick. Most often when a parcel’s tracking has stopped updating, it is simply due to a small delay in the delivery, or a delay in the tracking system registering mandtbank online mobile parcel’s progress. USPS provides Product Tracking & Reporting (PTR) scan events as mail is processed through their system. View Quote. You can track the current status of the parcel instead of visiting the courier location or calling customer service center. You can click on the tracking number and it will take you to live tracking information. Accurate tracking. Packages with such numbers can be tracked right until delivery. PARCEL. Why has my parcel tracking stopped updating? A. Answer (1 of 10): If your package is scanned at different points in it’s delivery journey, those scans will be accurately and timely reported in the tracking information available to you. China Post handles regular and registered postal service for China. F 1-617-275-2310 1-617-275-2310 Dec 07, 2020 · Using the tracking number that was generated when the shipping label was created, people can monitor the progress of their package as it moves through the USPS system. TF 1-800-282-8153. If you are lucky, you will at best know when it arrived in the destination country. View the scan history and status information of your package. The number of barcodes has increased, but it still isn’t enough to get accurate tracking. Information regarding current delivery performance The app also lets you track shipments on multiple devices. The greatest advantage is you could find mobile number current location via online map. You can also find information related to India post tracking mobile app. USPS Retail is a very reliable and inexpensive way to ship less-than-urgent deliveries and huge packages. With the increasing global warming, SKYNET is actively seeking ways to reduce the carbon footprint by reducing the usage of papers, plastic bags, and OGO Mobile is the first online delivery application in Kuwait. Priority Mail Express Confirmation Number 420071119470101699320023896177 Your package is scheduled for shipment on 06/07/16. I sent a parcel to Sweden on Friday - some binoculars I’d sold on Ebay. They provide more accurate and more detailed information. For Datatrac username, please add “@acceleratedusa. Use the Select Parcels tool to select parcels on the map by point, line or polygon. Very easy and secured app for all kind of users. Get started and join more than 1,900,000 happy Mailtrack users. Note: The Parcel Map numbers listed indicate the first or cover page of the Parcel Map. How accurate is my location, elevation and the Tracker? © 2020 Accurate Logistics Group, LLC. * *Tracking may not become accurate until scheduled day of delivery. This service is called “UPS Follow my delivery. You can also create an account with NSD, allowing for greater account-level detail. 6 times per order. Fastway Courier corporation is a logistics company operating its international and local delivery and other services in Australia, New Zealand, Ireland (including the North), and South Africa. The user has four options in viewing Web-based live map tracking system: bird’s eye, hybrid, map view, and satellite. Check out our pick USPS Tracking Track ePacket Packages. How accurate is the Government Land data? Our government land information is acquired from the county, state and federal level, so it will have the same level of accuracy as you find elsewhere. I am talking about 4-5k packages or so, so you have a good chance. To track your parcel, you’ll first need to enter your P2G reference or tracking number into the box below, and click ‘Track This Parcel’. If you click on the advanced tracking link you also have the option to track using the shippers reference number. Go to calendar. How can I track my parcel? The simplest and quickest way to do this is online using track and trace. Tracking rule 2. Our skilled personnel, tracking and combined with experience through integrated supply chain solutions! TRACK AND TRACE. As the Internet of Things (IoT) revolution transforms every part of the supply chain, it’s worth exploring the different technologies that you can use to monitor and measure the movement, storage and other aspects of goods. com and chose one: Create a new event click Add Google Meet video conferencing. All details will be provided after you submit the form. Sep 27, 2021 · Track Accurate Cargo Package. Track your package. Just insert the tracking number of your parcel below to estimate a quality of our service. You can get real-time text tracking record as well as visualized shipment locations on map of your USPS packages. Jul 30, 2018 · 'Track Package' link is visible when tracking information is available. Create shipment labels, schedule pickups, get estimates and more. Under the view type buttons, there are a few check boxes including Center Nov 08, 2021 · When we compared parcel-tracking data across the 7 US carrier regions (namely Hawaii-Alaska, Midwest-East, Midwest-West, Northeast, South, Southeast, and West), the following trends were observed: The Northeast experienced a 248% increase in missed delivery dates, which is considerably higher than any other region in the country. Enter your USF Reddaway Tracking Pro number to track consignment at trackingi. #6. Step 2. Jul 23, 2006 · Royal Mail Track & Trace is Pointless. Enjoy the convenience of online shipping. Measure length and area on The Timeular Tracker is the world’s first 8-sided tracking dice, automatically tracking activities when flipped. Accurate goes the extra mile. Click Change Delivery Instructions on the tracking results page to leave your request. com Services LLC, or its affiliates Speed Post Tracking is a tool to track status of Indian Speed Post for parcels, consignments, registered letters, passport and other India Post documents. Allow to keep track your orders history and can maintain wallet for credit maintain. FedEx, UPS, etc. Accurate Freight Carriers believe in proper communication, planning, scheduling and logistics to come up with a comprehensive and rewarding household relocation services. m. Submit. Just track your package and select “Delivery Instructions. Air cargo numbers have the format 123-12345678. Trace location of any Landline or Mobile Phone Number in the world. Save tracking during purchase and track visually progress of shipping 24/7 on map. 1. The latter allows you to keep track of all your previous and current shipments on one page. com” to the end of your PODs username. About us? Track all your USPS parcels on TrackingGo. This online service allows you to track locations by using phone number. App. There will be a list of these in the Yellow Pages or just Google. The larger the arc of contact and the higher the friction, the greater the tracking effect. Tracking your Hermes parcel has never been easier than it is with Parcel2Go’s parcel tracking tool. The company operates as a highly integrated network of people, technology and physical assets in 30 countries, with 1,504 locations and approximately 100,000 employees. Phone Number Track. With TrackNow. com and you have not received it, it may be with the USPS and arriving shortly. Feb 25, 2014 · Equally likely, your parcel is at the local Post Office. Label parcels by PIN, altkey, owner name, and site address number. Solutions. Track UPS®, USPS®, FedEx®, FedEx SmartPost®, DHL®, Canada Post® packages and more with Google Maps™. Each particular parcel is tracked on different national postal services and on courier services such as UPS, FedEx, DHL, EMS providing an accurate calculation of its status and location. Online Tracking - Accelerated. Sixty second tracking is standard, monitors and alerts to harsh driving events, landmark alerts, and more. For more information please contact FedEx Customer Service at 800 FedEx (800 33339). Our Contact Arcadia Home Delivery 1426 Bethel Drive High Point NC 27260 Call us at 336 Track courier provides an online automatic tracking system to track Delhivery Courier shipments. Check the box next to "Attendance tracking" click Save. You can also track cell phone number and track phone location. Track your item. Contact us for a quote on your next shipment. Todays Date: Saturday, Oct 30. Device Tracker Plus is a location tracking app for both tablets and phones. At RapidTrack. Tracking Never lose sight of your international shipment. com home page --and sign in using your email address and password. More often than not, it comprises of several alphanumeric characters but can consist of just numbers as well. To track a package, enter the tracking ID in the search field on this page and press ‘Track’. With extensive network and coverage areas, supported by strong infrastructure, SKYNET pledge to uphold its quality policy of providing FAST ACCURATE RELIABLE services to all valued customers. … and a ton more! Check out the migration guide to learn how to upgrade an existing project from Parcel 1 to Parcel 2. Use "i-tool" to click on a parcel and view property record information. com orders. 0 out of 5 stars 162. If you'd like to track your order, follow these simple steps: Select the Order Status link--it's near the bottom of the Costco. XPO uses its network to help more than 50,000 customers manage their Aug 10, 2021 · ePacket tracking gives customers end-to-end tracking at no additional cost, letting them easily monitor and locate their package on official websites, such as EMS, USPS, or China Post. In each map view, you can toggle the screen or reposition the map. HOW TO TRACK A USPS PACKAGE. It is a web-based application fully equipped with tools to help you monitor visibility evolution, ranking distribution, and ranking comparison, helping you detect flaws in your SEO strategies. Track24 is one of the best parcel tracking apps out there, especially for businessmen. A number of websites provide tracking capabilities that search across multiple carriers at once. Our corporate office is based out of Carlstadt, NJ. e. " Jan 16, 2021 · USPS Tracking. 4. 5. We offer our assurance that, in the event of a claim, we will make the process as painless as possible. Click here to learn more about our Government Land data. From there, you’ll be able to view the tracking details for your package. Simply enter your USPS® tracking number to start the process. To track a phone number, input the phone number and click track. Can I track my package in real time? With Parcel Monitor, you can track all your USPS packages with real-time updates. Finish setting up your event. Yes, orders can be tracked online using your Tracking Number, which will provide all status updates and milestones. All the regional center and branch offices are well furnished and wholly computerized. 13. Feb 12, 2020 · Electronic Tracking. Celebrating our 28th year in business as the state’s leading LTL motor freight carrier. If you are expecting to receive a parcel, please contact the sender of the parcel for the tracking number. It is advised to check with local office for accurate results, because the hours of delivery vary by product and location. Select Shipment Type. accurate parcel tracking

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Refresh Your Receivers General support daily, 8 a. 5% coupon applied at checkout. How BBB Processes Complaints and Reviews. For faster service, many of your questions can be solved by using our self-service options in the topics below. Address. On your terms. 6464 to speak with an agent immediately. However, due to increased social media attention,this product is selling extremely fast and we are estimating to be out of stock very shortly. 00 Requires active service and paid AT&T data plan. – 12 a. Louisville 3600 Chamberlain Lane Suite 148 Louisville, KY 40241 New Jersey. Online purchases/Billing questions, please visit: Contact Customer Service. Have a code that isn't working? We've got you* Put your code in the text field, then click the Select Contact button and fill out the email form. We'd love to hear from you! Send us a message at [email protected] HERBERT. Overall performance from Henckels stamped and forged knives is solid. Forged and folded with care, this layering process results in a superiorly made blade, offering incredible durability, razor-sharp edge retention and a one-of-a-kind pattern. Orders may be delayed due to high carrier volume. Get answers to commonly asked questions about unburied wire, cable installation, and repairs. 2583. Shipping/mailing address: Kryptonite

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