1st trimester discharge

Changes in vaginal discharge can be one of the first signs of pregnancy, with the earliest being one to two weeks following conception and even. Vaginal bleeding may vary from light spotting to heavy bleeding with clots. Vaginal bleeding is a common problem in early pregnancy. Is Watery Discharge An Early Pregnancy Symptom? The short answer is: It can be. Vaginal discharge.
1st trimester discharge

1st trimester discharge -

Is it normal to have headaches, spotting or cramps in pregnancy?

If there’s one thing you can count on in pregnancy, it’s that you’ll have a few symptoms you weren’t expecting. While the nausea, cravings and tendency to cry as you watch Emmerdale are standard, some symptoms ring a few alarm bells. Here’s what you should keep an eye on.

Is it normal to have abdominal or stomach pain in pregnancy?

Abdominal pain, aches and cramps are common for pregnant women and usually nothing to worry about. The main cause of abdominal pain is ligaments stretching with the pregnancy.

Pain can be eased by lying down on the side opposite to the pain, having a warm bath, using a hot water bottle and moving more slowly (Aguilera, 2015).

When might stomach pain might be a concern?

Contact your midwife or GP immediately if your pain doesn’t go away after a few minutes rest or if you also have:

  • blood in your wee
  • pain or a burning sensation when you wee
  • vaginal discharge that seems out of the ordinary
  • bleeding
  • vomiting
  • fever
  • chills.

    (Kilpatrick, 2018)

Painful stomach cramps could be a sign of miscarriage if accompanied by bleeding or ectopic pregnancy. They could also be something unrelated to pregnancy.

Is it normal to have bleeding or spotting in pregnancy?

First, don’t panic. Vaginal bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy is common and doesn’t always indicate to problem (RCOG, 2016; NHS, 2018a).

Early pregnancy bleeding can be down to spotting, cervical changes, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy (NHS, 2018a). In later pregnancy, vaginal bleeding may be due to cervical changes, vaginal infections, a ‘show’, placental abruption or a low-lying placenta (placenta praevia) (NHS, 2018a).

When might bleeding be a concern?

While bleeding is common, bleeding and/or pain can be a warning sign of a miscarriage or other complications so it is important that you immediately contact your GP or midwife, your local Early Pregnancy Assessment Service, NHS 111 or A&E it's severe (RCOG, 2016; NHS, 2018a).

It’s important to find out the cause of bleeding so your doctor or midwife will ask about other symptoms like cramping, pain and dizziness. You may also need to undergo a vaginal or pelvic examination, an ultrasound scan or blood tests to check your hormone levels (NHS, 2018a).

Is it normal to have headaches during pregnancy?

Headaches are common during pregnancy but they usually improve or stop in the second and third trimester. You can take paracetamol if you need to but get advice from a pharmacist, midwife or GP about how much to take and for how long (NHS, 2018a).

To help prevent more headaches:

  • drink plenty of fluids
  • get enough sleep
  • rest and relax

    (NHS, 2018a).

Although most pregnancy headaches are innocent, they can be more serious or indicate an underlying heath condition like pre-eclampsia (RCOG, 2014).

When might headaches be a concern?

Call your midwife, GP or NHS 111 immediately if you get any of the following symptoms as they could be symptoms of pre-eclampsia:

  • a very severe headache
  • a problem with vision such as blurring or flashing lights in your eyes
  • severe pain just below ribs
  • vomiting
  • sudden swelling in your face, hands or feet

    (NHS, 2018a).

Is it normal to have swelling in pregnancy?

Gradual swelling in the legs, ankles, feet and fingers (oedema) is normal during pregnancy and isn’t harmful (though it can be uncomfortable).  Swelling is usually caused by more water staying in your body than usual. Swelling tends to get worse further into your pregnancy and at the end of the day, when water has gathered in the lowest parts of the body.

Here are some tips to avoid swelling.

  • Avoid standing for long stretches of time.
  • Choose comfortable footwear.
  • Put your feet up.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Do foot exercises. Sitting or standing, bend up then point down your foot 30 times, and circle each foot eight times in each direction

    (NHS, 2018c).

Is it normal to have shortness of breath in pregnancy?

Breathlessness is a common problem in pregnancy that may start in the first or second trimester. You are more likely to feel breathless if you have gained a lot of weight or are expecting more than one baby. Breathlessness can last until you are nearly ready to give birth. It won’t harm your baby but can be annoying for you. Try these tips to help ease your breathlessness:

  • Keep in an upright position.
  • Do light exercise such as walking or swimming.

When might shortness or breath be a concern?

If you’re suffering from tiredness and palpitations as well as breathlessness, it can be a sign of low iron levels in your blood. Make sure you discuss these symptoms with your midwife.

Is it normal to have leg cramps in pregnancy?

You’ll know you’re suffering from leg cramps if you get a sudden, sharp pain, usually in your calf muscles or feet. It will often happen at night and in the later stages of pregnancy but no-one quite knows why (NHS, 2017; NHS, 2018d).

Usually, cramps go away on their own but stretching and massaging the muscle might help the pain to lessen (NHS, 2017). You could also try pulling your toes hard up towards the ankle or rubbing the muscle hard (NHS, 2018d).  

Regular gentle exercises in pregnancy involving ankle and leg movements will help with circulation and might prevent cramp. See the foot exercises above (in the swelling section) and repeat on both feet (NHS, 2018d).

This page was last reviewed in March 2018

Further information

Our support line offers practical and emotional support with feeding your baby and general enquiries for parents, members and volunteers: 0300 330 0700.

We also offer antenatal courses which are a great way to find out more about birth, labour and life with a new baby.

Make friends with other parents-to-be and new parents in your local area for support and friendship by seeing what NCT activities are happening nearby.

Источник: https://www.nct.org.uk/pregnancy/worries-and-discomforts/symptoms-watch-out-for/it-normal-have-headaches-spotting-or-cramps-pregnancy

Vaginal Yeast Infection During Pregnancy

Topic Overview

Vaginal yeast infections are a common problem during pregnancy. They may be caused by high estrogen levels. These infections aren't a risk to the pregnancy. But they can cause uncomfortable symptoms.

If you are pregnant and have vaginal infection symptoms, see your doctor. Don't assume that your symptoms are caused by a harmless yeast infection. If you have bacterial vaginosis or a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, you will need treatment to prevent problems during pregnancy.

If you are pregnant, do not use nonprescription yeast infection medicine unless you discuss it with your doctor first. Experts recommend that during pregnancy:footnote 1

  • Vaginal medicines should be used for yeast infection treatment. These may be vaginal creams or suppositories.
  • Only certain medicines should be used. Nonprescription medicines include butoconazole (such as Femstat), clotrimazole (such as Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (such as Monistat), and terconazole (such as Terazol).
  • Treatment should be used for 7 days. (It can take longer than usual to cure a yeast infection during pregnancy.)

In the past, nystatin (such as Mycostatin) was the drug of choice for the first trimester of pregnancy. But now all vaginal medicines are considered safe during pregnancy.

References

Citations

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR, 64(RR-03): 1–137. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015. Accessed July 2, 2015. [Erratum in MMWR, 64(33): 924. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6433a9.htm?s_cid=mm6433a9_w. Accessed January 25, 2016.]

Credits

Current as of: July 17, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD - Family Medicine
Deborah A. Penava BA, MD, FRCSC, MPH - Obstetrics and Gynecology

Источник: https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw79515
Detailed Fact Sheet

Detailed fact sheets are intended for physicians and individuals with specific questions about sexually transmitted diseases. Detailed fact sheets include specific testing and treatment recommendations as well as citations so the reader can research the topic more in depth.

Table of Recommendations

Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception (when the egg is fertilized) to the end of pregnancy.

Some women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Spotting is when you notice a few drops of blood every now and then on your underwear. It is not enough to cover a panty liner.

Bleeding is a heavier flow of blood. With bleeding, you will need a liner or pad to keep the blood from soaking your clothes.

Ask your health care provider more about the difference between spotting and bleeding at one of your first prenatal visits.

Some spotting is normal very early in pregnancy. Still, it is a good idea to tell your provider about it.

If you have had an ultrasound that confirms you have a normal pregnancy, call your provider the day you first see the spotting.

If you have spotting and have not yet had an ultrasound, contact your provider right away. Spotting can be a sign of a pregnancy where the fertilized egg develops outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy). An untreated ectopic pregnancy can be life-threatening for the woman.

Bleeding in the 1st trimester is not always a problem. It may be caused by:

  • Having sex.
  • An infection.
  • The fertilized egg implanting in the uterus.
  • Hormone changes.
  • Other factors that will not harm the woman or baby.
  • A threatened miscarriage. Many threatened miscarriages do not progress to pregnancy loss.

More serious causes of first-trimester bleeding include:

  • A miscarriage, which is the loss of the pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can live on its own outside the uterus. Almost all women who miscarry will have bleeding before a miscarriage.
  • An ectopic pregnancy, which may cause bleeding and cramping.
  • A molar pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg implants in the uterus that will not come to term.

Your provider may need to know these things to find the cause of your vaginal bleeding:

  • How far along is your pregnancy?
  • Have you had vaginal bleeding during this or an earlier pregnancy?
  • When did your bleeding begin?
  • Does it stop and start, or is it a steady flow?
  • How much blood is there?
  • What is the color of the blood?
  • Does the blood have an odor?
  • Do you have cramps or pain?
  • Do you feel weak or tired?
  • Have you fainted or felt dizzy?
  • Do you have nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have you been injured, such as in a fall?
  • Have you changed your physical activity?
  • Do you have any extra stress?
  • When did you last have sex? Did you bleed afterward?
  • What is your blood type? Your provider can test your blood type. If it is Rh negative, you will need treatment with a medicine called Rho(D) immune globulin to prevent complications with future pregnancies.

Most of the time, the treatment for bleeding is rest. It is important to see your provider and have testing done to find the cause of your bleeding. Your provider may advise you to:

  • Take time off work
  • Stay off your feet
  • Not have sex
  • Not douche (NEVER do this during pregnancy, and also avoid it when you are not pregnant)
  • Not use tampons

Very heavy bleeding may require a hospital stay or surgical procedure.

If something other than blood comes out, call your provider right away. Put the discharge in a jar or a plastic bag and bring it with you to your appointment.

Your provider will check to see if you are still pregnant. You will be closely watched with blood tests to see if you are still pregnant.

If you are no longer pregnant, you may need more care from your provider, such as medicine or possibly surgery.

Call or go to your provider right away if you have:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Bleeding with pain or cramping
  • Dizziness and bleeding
  • Pain in your belly or pelvis

If you cannot reach your provider, go to the emergency room.

If your bleeding has stopped, you still need to call your provider. Your provider will need to find out what caused your bleeding.

Miscarriage - vaginal bleeding; Threatened abortion - vaginal bleeding

Francois KE, Foley MR. Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 18.

Salhi BA, Nagrani S. Acute complications of pregnancy. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 178.

Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Browse the Encyclopedia

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000614.htm

Weird Early Pregnancy Symptoms No One Tells You About

Overview

Everyone knows the classic signs of pregnancy. You’ve missed your period. Your breasts are tender. And you’re tired all the time.

But pregnant women also experience a whole host of symptoms beyond these first signs. From mucus discharge to tasting metal to headaches, expect the unexpected.

Here’s a list of 10 weird early pregnancy symptoms no one tells you about.

1. Early pregnancy discharge

While many women experience vaginal discharge, it’s not often associated with pregnancy. But most pregnant women will secrete sticky, white, or pale-yellow mucus early on in the first trimester and throughout their pregnancy.

Increased hormones and vaginal blood flow cause the discharge. It increases during pregnancy to prevent infections as your cervix and vaginal walls soften. Visit your doctor if the discharge starts to:

These may be signs of an infection.

5. You just can’t go

You may feel bloated, like you want to pass gas or go number two. But it’s just not happening. That’s because pregnancy’s hormonal changes can lead to constipation, as can prenatal vitamins.

Your digestive system slows down during pregnancy. This gives nutrients just enough extra time to absorb into your bloodstream and reach your little one.

If you can’t go, add more fiber into your diet, drink plenty of fluids, and exercise regularly. If needed, you can also check with your doctor about adding a pregnancy-safe stool softener.

8. Your chest, it burns

Hormones change everything during pregnancy. This includes the valve between your stomach and esophagus. This area becomes relaxed during pregnancy, which can cause stomach acid to leak into your esophagus, causing heartburn.

Fight back by eating smaller, more frequent meals. Also cut out fried grub. Try to avoid fizzy drinks, citrus fruits, juices, and spicy foods.

9. You’re up, then you’re down

Your hormones suddenly change when you become pregnant. This can throw your emotions out of whack. You’ll feel unusually weepy and emotional. Your libido goes from hot to cold then back to hot again. You might also experience mood swings. This is very common during early pregnancy.

10. You’ll taste metal

Increases in estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy can lead to changes in taste for many pregnant women.

A condition called dysegusia has some pregnant women tasting metal. You’ll feel like you were chomping on some old pennies with your lunch. Get rid of the metallic flavor by munching on saltines and chewing sugarless gum. Also try drinking colder liquids or eating spicier foods.

Takeaway

Some of the symptoms listed above may make you think you’re just stressed and run down. But experienced together, they can point to pregnancy.

Pay attention to what your body is telling you. It might be time to see your doctor for a pregnancy test.

Источник: https://www.healthline.com/health/pregnancy/weird-early-symptoms

Pregnancy - red flag symptoms

0.5 CPD Credits Click here to take a test on this article and claim your certificate on MIMS Learning

Although GPs have not provided lead maternity care services for many years, studies have demonstrated that pregnant women consult their GP more frequently than non-pregnant women, and that GPs remain important providers of care for women during maternity.

In assessing the pregnant patient, it is important to exclude serious conditions that may warrant investigation or referral, from the normal symptoms of pregnancy.

Pregnancy can exacerbate medical conditions, including fibroid degeneration, ovarian cysts, urinary tract infections, adnexal masses that persist in pregnancy, gastro-oesophageal reflux, gallbladder disease, pre-existing hypertension and constipation. Pregnancy can worsen diabetic control and can cause gestational diabetes. Finally, remember labour as a cause of symptoms, especially in first-time pregnancies.

Red flag symptoms

  • Severe back pain
  • Visual changes, such as blurred vision or diplopia
  • Headaches
  • New onset limb swelling
  • Shoulder tip pain
  • Acute shortness of breath
  • Leg swelling and pain
  • Intractable vomiting
  • Unilateral pain in pelvis or lower abdomen
  • Vaginal bleeding or increased discharge
  • Epigastric pain
  • Acute pleuritic chest pain
  • Rigid/tender uterus
  • High fever
  • Hypertension
  • Severe itching
  • Reduced foetal movements
  • New onset thirst or polyuria

Possible causes

  • Premature labour
  • Miscarriage
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Placental abruption
  • Pre-eclampsia
  • Obstetric cholestasis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • DVT/PE
  • Hyperemesis gravidarum
  • Placenta praevia
  • Gestational diabetes

Urgent referral

It is important a pregnant woman be urgently referred to the obstetric team if she experiences:

  • Severe abdominal, pelvic, or unusual back pain
  • Fainting or lightheadedness
  • The baby moving much less or having sudden violent movements
  • A fever and suggestion of sepsis
  • A rapid pulse or lowered BP, indicating shock
  • Visual changes, headaches and swelling suggestive of pre-eclampsia
  • Acute shortness of breath, with or without leg swelling and pain
  • Rigid/tender uterus
  • Acute pleuritic chest pain
  • Vaginal bleeding or blood-stained discharge (see ‘Early vaginal bleeding’ page for more information)

Investigations in primary care

Urinalysis may be done in primary care, depending on the urgency of the situation, to exclude a UTI or highlight proteinuria, suggestive of pre-eclampsia.

Blood tests can be useful, to identify infection or anaemia for example. Doppler ultrasound of foetal heart rate may be performed.

Early vaginal bleeding and ectopic pregnancy

One in four pregnancies experience bleeding, most commonly between the ninth and twelfth weeks, which can be part of a normal pregnancy. Painless spotting during early pregnancy is often caused by physiological embryo implantation.

Bleeding in the first trimester can also be a sign of an ectopic pregnancy, typically occurring around the sixth week. A woman presenting with unilateral lower abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding should be investigated for ectopic pregnancy.

A history of past ectopic pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, smoking and fallopian tube surgery increases risk of ectopic pregnancy.

ymptoms including diarrhoea, vomiting, bowel pain and/or referred shoulder tip pain (caused by internal bleeding irritating the phrenic nerve) make the diagnosis more likely. In women not known to be pregnant, with a delayed period and bleeding that is different from a normal period (heavier or lighter and often darker) an ectopic pregnancy should be considered.

Miscarriage and antepartum haemorrhage

Miscarriage or potential miscarriage (loss of pregnancy before 24 weeks gestation) may be indicated by bleeding, passage of clots and especially when combined with persistent back or abdominal pain.

Most miscarriages occur in the first trimester and it may affect up to a fifth of recognised pregnancies. A woman who the plot against america first edition had more than three unexplained miscarriages should be referred for further investigation.

Antepartum haemorrhage

Antepartum haemorrhage - bleeding from or into the genital tract that occurs from 24 weeks, can be a result of placenta praevia, placental abruption and local causes.

Bleeding accompanied by continuous pain with a hard, tender uterus may indicate placental abruption.

Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia typically, but not apply for ein number california, occurs after the twentieth week of gestation. It is associated with elevated blood pressure (>140/90mmHg) and proteinuria in a previously normotensive woman.

NICE guidance states that blood pressure measurement and urinalysis should be carried out at each antenatal visit to screen for pre-eclampsia.

Clinical suspicion should be aroused with presenting symptoms including epigastric pain, severe headaches, new onset visual problems or sudden onset oedematous swelling.

Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder having the potential to affect all the systems of the body, including the placenta and the baby. The prime pathology is an abnormal relationship between the maternal system and the trophoblastic system.

Its incidence is greater in diabetic pregnancies and multiple pregnancies. It 1st trimester discharge generally a disease of women in their first pregnancy, and more common among women aged over 35.

Obesity is a risk factor for hypertension, but not for pre-eclampsia. Women who have developed hypertension while taking a combined oral contraceptive are at risk of pre-eclampsia, as are those with autoimmune disorders.

The incidence is lower among women who smoke

HELLP syndrome - haemolysis (H), elevated liver enzymes (EL) and low platelet count (LP) - is a life-threatening condition that can occur in those with pre-eclampsia.

Hyperemesis gravidarum

Nausea and vomiting are common in pregnancy, affecting up to 90% of pregnant women and usually requiring advice and reassurance, although 35% of these women may require anti-emetic medication such as cyclizine.

The severe intractable nausea and vomiting of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), usually between eight and twelve weeks, 1st trimester discharge up to 2% of pregnant women. HG can lead to fluid and electrolyte disturbance and marked ketonuria – an indicator for admission for fluid support.

The BMJ Publishing Group’s Clinical Evidence (www.clinicalevidence.com) states antihistamines are 'beneficial’ in hyperemesis, while cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) and dietary ginger are `likely to be beneficial’.

Dietary intervention excluding ginger, acupressure, phenothiazines, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), corticosteroids are of unknown effectiveness.

Obstetric cholestasis

Intrahepatic (obstetric) cholestasis generally occurs in the third trimester and affects 0.7% of pregnancies (up to 1.5% of Indian-Asian or Pakistani-Asian origin).

Intense pruritus, without accompanying rash, typically affects the hands and soles. Jaundice can occur with pale stools and dark urine, as mystery color by number for adults printable generalised malaise, with symptoms often preceding unexplained elevated AST, ALT and total bile acid levels (the upper limit of normal is 20% lower than non-pregnant levels).

Other causes of liver dysfunction and itching need to be excluded. The condition should settle spontaneously following delivery.

With increased risk of foetal distress, premature birth and intrauterine death, women with a present or past history of obstetric cholestasis should be managed by a consultant-led team.

Leaking fluid and/or contractions

Leaking of fluid per vagina prior to thirty-seven weeks gestation should be assumed to be premature rupture of the membranes and will require monitoring, vigilance over potential infection and preparation for premature delivery.

After 37 weeks, clear amniotic fluid leakage would usually be followed by imminent labour.
Delivery may be very imminent with intense contractions, or the feeling to push or how to remove credit card from amazon account a bowel movement.

Any of the following, in association with likely labour, indicate a potential life-threatening problem with immediate referral to a consultant-led labour ward necessary:

  • Heavy vaginal bleeding
  • Ruptured waters with protrusion of umbilical cord from the vagina or sensation of something in the vagina
  • Ruptured waters with thick, yellow, green or brown fluid
  • Cessation of baby movements or violent movements
  • Maternal sensation of passing out

Urinary symptoms/vaginal discharge

Urinary infection not responding to antibiotics, refractory candida or other vaginal discharge should all necessitate swabs since certain vaginal infections are associated with pre-term birth and low birth-weight babies.

UTIs can also present with non-specific symptoms in pregnant women. There is an increased risk of pyelonephritis in women with UTIs.

Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy carries significant risk to the baby, but has reduced in incidence in recent decades as a result of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, including urinalysis at each antenatal visit.

In severe cases the mother will have high pyrexia. Babies tolerate fever poorly and death in-utero may occur if the temperature is not brought under control.

Premature labour is also associated with high fevers in the third trimester. The infecting organism is usually a coliform, and antibiotic treatment should be commenced empirically.

Ascending infection is a common cause of sickle cell crises.

DVT/PE

An index of suspicion should be raised toward deep vein thrombosis with leg swelling, pain, warmth and/or redness – remembering that the Wells score has not been validated in pregnancy and referral should be based on clinical acumen.

Any sudden difficulty in breathing, chest pain or tightness, or maternal collapse has to include consideration of a pulmonary embolism with prompt medical assessment.

Trauma

Most accidental falls and minor traumatic injuries in pregnancy are not harmful. However, signs of emotional or physical distress, such as bleeding, amniotic fluid leak or contractions, should prompt obstetric review.

Psychological problems

If a woman has a psychiatric history, they should generally be managed by a consultant-led team, including specialist psychiatric review as part of their antenatal programme.

Symptoms of depression are often reviewed in primary care. Patients are often taking SSRIs and information about these in pregnancy can be found on the Bumps website. You should be vigilant for thoughts of self harm and suicide, with referral as appropriate.

You may have access to a perinatal mental health service.

Fever

A febrile patient should prompt investigation and treatment of cause, considering onward referral if signs of sepsis are present, or with associated haemodynamic instability, deteriorating clinical condition, or non-responsiveness to treatment.

  • This article, originally by Dr Matthew West, was reviewed and updated in 2020 by Dr Pipin Singh a GP in Northumberland

Take a test on this article and claim your certificate on MIMS Learning

Источник: https://www.gponline.com/pregnancy-red-flag-symptoms/womens-health/article/1398533
Detailed Fact Sheet

Detailed fact sheets are intended for physicians and individuals with specific questions about sexually transmitted diseases. Detailed fact sheets include specific testing and treatment recommendations as well as citations so the reader can research the topic more in depth.

Table of Recommendations

Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy is any discharge of blood from the vagina. It can happen any time from conception (when the egg is fertilized) to the end of pregnancy.

Some women have vaginal bleeding during their first 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Spotting is when you notice a few drops of blood every now and then on your underwear. It is not enough to cover a panty liner.

Bleeding is a heavier flow of blood. With bleeding, you will need a liner or pad to keep the blood from soaking your clothes.

Ask your health care provider more about the difference between spotting and bleeding at one of your first prenatal visits.

Some spotting is normal very early in pregnancy. Still, it is a good idea to tell your provider about it.

If you have had an ultrasound that confirms you have a normal pregnancy, call your provider the chase bank application for credit card you first see the spotting.

If you have spotting and have not yet had an ultrasound, contact your provider right away. Spotting can be a sign of a pregnancy where the fertilized egg develops outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy). An untreated ectopic pregnancy can be life-threatening for the woman.

Bleeding in the 1st trimester is not always a problem. It may be caused by:

  • Having sex.
  • An infection.
  • The fertilized egg implanting in the uterus.
  • Hormone changes.
  • Other factors that will not harm the woman or baby.
  • A threatened miscarriage. Many threatened miscarriages do not progress to pregnancy loss.

More serious causes of first-trimester bleeding include:

  • A miscarriage, which is the loss of the pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can live on its own outside the uterus. Almost all women who miscarry will have bleeding before a miscarriage.
  • An ectopic pregnancy, which may cause bleeding and jose baston ex wife molar pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg implants in the uterus that will not come to term.

Your provider may need to know these things to find the cause of your vaginal bleeding:

  • How far along is your pregnancy?
  • Have you had vaginal bleeding during this or an earlier pregnancy?
  • When did your bleeding begin?
  • Does it stop and start, or is it a steady flow?
  • How much blood is there?
  • What is the color of the blood?
  • Does the blood have an odor?
  • Do you have cramps or pain?
  • Do you feel weak or tired?
  • Have you fainted or felt dizzy?
  • Do you have nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea?
  • Do you have a fever?
  • Have you been injured, such as in a fall?
  • Have you changed your physical activity?
  • Do you have any extra stress?
  • When did you last have sex? Did you bleed afterward?
  • What is your blood type? Your provider can test your blood type. If come and take a look at me now lyrics is Rh negative, you will need treatment with a medicine called Rho(D) immune globulin to prevent complications with future pregnancies.

Most of the time, the treatment for bleeding is rest. It is important to see your provider and have testing done to find the cause of your bleeding. Your provider may advise you to:

  • Take time off work
  • Stay off your feet
  • Not have sex
  • Not douche (NEVER do this during pregnancy, and also avoid it when you are not pregnant)
  • Not use tampons

Very heavy bleeding may require a hospital stay or surgical procedure.

If something other than blood comes out, call your provider right away. Put the discharge in a jar or a plastic bag and bring it with you to your appointment.

Your provider will check to see if you are still pregnant. You discover card customer care number be closely watched with blood tests to see if you are still pregnant.

If you are no longer pregnant, you may need more care from your provider, such as medicine or possibly surgery.

Call or go to your provider right away if you have:

  • Heavy bleeding
  • Bleeding with pain or cramping
  • Dizziness and bleeding
  • Pain in your belly or pelvis

If you cannot reach your provider, go to the emergency room.

If your bleeding has stopped, you still need to call your provider. Your provider will need to find out what caused your bleeding.

Miscarriage - vaginal bleeding; Threatened capital one new online banking system - vaginal bleeding

Francois KE, Foley MR. Antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage. In: Landon MB, Galan HL, Jauniaux ERM, et al, eds. Gabbe's Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2021:chap 18.

Salhi BA, Nagrani S. Acute complications of pregnancy. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 178.

Updated by: John D. Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, Loma Linda, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, 1st trimester discharge Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Browse the Encyclopedia

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000614.htm

Is it normal to have headaches, spotting or cramps in pregnancy?

If there’s one thing you can count on in pregnancy, it’s that you’ll have a few symptoms you weren’t expecting. While the nausea, cravings and tendency to cry as you watch Emmerdale are standard, some symptoms ring a few alarm bells. Here’s what you should keep an eye on.

Is it normal to have abdominal or stomach pain in pregnancy?

Abdominal pain, aches and cramps are common for pregnant women and usually nothing to worry about. The main cause of abdominal pain is ligaments stretching with the pregnancy.

Pain can be eased by lying down on the side opposite to the pain, having a warm bath, using a hot water bottle and moving more slowly (Aguilera, 2015).

When might stomach pain might be a concern?

Contact your midwife or GP immediately if your pain doesn’t go away after a few minutes rest or if you also have:

  • blood in your wee
  • pain or a burning sensation when you wee
  • vaginal discharge that seems out of the ordinary
  • bleeding
  • vomiting
  • fever
  • chills.

    (Kilpatrick, 2018)

Painful stomach cramps could be a sign of miscarriage if accompanied by bleeding or ectopic pregnancy. They could also be something unrelated to pregnancy.

Is it normal to have bleeding or spotting in pregnancy?

First, don’t panic. Vaginal bleeding in the early stages of pregnancy is common and doesn’t always indicate to community financial credit union northville mi, 2016; NHS, 2018a).

Early pregnancy bleeding can be down to spotting, cervical changes, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy (NHS, 2018a). In later pregnancy, vaginal bleeding may be due to cervical changes, vaginal infections, a ‘show’, placental abruption or a low-lying placenta (placenta praevia) (NHS, 2018a).

When might bleeding be a concern?

While bleeding is common, bleeding and/or pain can be a warning sign of a miscarriage or other complications so it is important that you immediately contact your GP or midwife, your local Early Pregnancy Assessment Service, NHS 111 or A&E it's severe (RCOG, 2016; NHS, 2018a).

It’s important to find out the cause of bleeding so your doctor or midwife will ask about other symptoms like cramping, pain and dizziness. You may also need to undergo a vaginal or pelvic examination, an ultrasound scan or blood tests to check your hormone levels (NHS, 2018a).

Is it normal to have headaches during pregnancy?

Headaches are common during pregnancy but they usually improve or stop in the second and third trimester. You can take paracetamol if you need to but get advice from a pharmacist, midwife or GP about how much to take and for how long (NHS, 2018a).

To help prevent more headaches:

  • drink plenty of fluids
  • get enough sleep
  • rest and relax

    (NHS, 2018a).

Although most pregnancy headaches are innocent, they can be more serious or indicate an underlying heath condition like pre-eclampsia (RCOG, 2014).

When might headaches be a concern?

Call your midwife, GP or NHS 111 immediately if you get any of the following symptoms as they could be symptoms of pre-eclampsia:

  • a very severe headache
  • a problem with vision such as blurring or flashing lights in your eyes
  • severe pain just below ribs
  • vomiting
  • sudden swelling in your face, hands or feet

    (NHS, 2018a).

Is it normal to have swelling in pregnancy?

Gradual swelling in the legs, ankles, feet and fingers (oedema) is normal during pregnancy and isn’t harmful (though it can be uncomfortable).  Swelling is usually caused by more water staying in your body than usual. Swelling tends to get worse further into your pregnancy and at the end of the day, when water has gathered in the lowest parts of the body.

Here are some tips to avoid swelling.

  • Avoid standing for long stretches of time.
  • Choose comfortable footwear.
  • Put your feet up.
  • Drink plenty of water.
  • Do foot exercises. Sitting or standing, bend up then point down your foot 30 times, and circle each foot eight times in each direction

    (NHS, 2018c).

Is it normal to have shortness of breath in pregnancy?

Breathlessness is a common problem in pregnancy that may start in the first or second trimester. You are more likely to feel breathless if you have gained a lot of weight or are expecting more than one baby. Breathlessness can last until you are nearly ready to give birth. It won’t harm your baby but can be annoying for you. Try these tips to help ease your breathlessness:

  • Keep in an upright position.
  • Do light exercise such as walking or swimming.

When might shortness or breath be a concern?

If you’re suffering from tiredness and palpitations as well as breathlessness, it can be a sign of low iron levels in your blood. Make sure you discuss these symptoms with your midwife.

Is it normal to have leg cramps in pregnancy?

You’ll know you’re suffering from leg cramps if you get a sudden, sharp pain, usually in your calf muscles or feet. It will often happen at night and in the later stages of pregnancy but no-one quite knows why (NHS, 2017; NHS, 2018d).

Usually, cramps go away on their own but stretching and massaging the muscle might help the pain to lessen (NHS, 2017). You could also try pulling your toes hard up towards the ankle or rubbing the muscle hard (NHS, 2018d).  

Regular gentle exercises in pregnancy involving ankle and leg movements will help with circulation and might prevent cramp. See the foot exercises above (in the swelling section) and repeat on both feet (NHS, 2018d).

This page was last reviewed in March 2018

Further information

Our support line offers practical and emotional support with feeding your baby and general enquiries for parents, members and volunteers: 0300 330 0700.

We also offer antenatal courses which are a great way to find out more about birth, labour and life with a new baby.

Make friends with other parents-to-be and new parents in your local area for support and friendship by seeing what NCT activities are happening nearby.

Источник: https://www.nct.org.uk/pregnancy/worries-and-discomforts/symptoms-watch-out-for/it-normal-have-headaches-spotting-or-cramps-pregnancy
The Effects of STDs During Pregnancy

A critical component of appropriate prenatal care is ensuring that pregnant patients are tested for STDs. Test your pregnant patients for STDs starting early in their pregnancy and repeat close to delivery, as needed. To ensure that the correct tests are being performed, we encourage you to have open, honest conversations with your pregnant patients and, when possible, their sex partners about symptoms they have experienced or are currently experiencing and any high-risk sexual behaviors in which they engage. The table below includes CDC’s screening recommendations for pregnant women.

DiseaseCDC Recommendation
ChlamydiaFirst prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women <25 years of age and older pregnant women at increased risk for infection.
Third trimester: Rescreen if <25 years of age or at continued high risk.
Risk Factors:
  • New or multiple sex partners
  • Sex partner with concurrent partners
  • Sex partner who has a sexually-transmitted disease (STD)

NOTE: Pregnant women found to have chlamydial infection should have a test-of-cure three to four weeks after treatment and then be retested within three months.

GonorrheaFirst prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women <25 years of age and older pregnant women at increased risk for gonorrhea at first prenatal visit.
Third trimester: Rescreen for women at continued high risk.
Risk factors:
  • Living in a high-morbidity area
  • Previous or coexisting STI
  • New or multiple sex partners
  • Inconsistent condom use among persons not in mutually monogamous relationships
  • Exchanging sex for money or drugs
SyphilisFirst prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women.
Third trimester (28 weeks and at delivery): Rescreen women who:
  • Are at risk for syphilis during pregnancy (e.g., misuses drugs; has had another STI during pregnancy; or has had multiple sex partners, a new partner, or a partner with an STI);
  • Live in areas with high numbers of syphilis cases, and/or;
  • Were not previously tested, or had a positive test in the first trimester.
Bacterial Vaginosis regions bank 24 hour customer service number does not support routine screening for BV in asymptomatic pregnant women at high or low risk for preterm delivery.
TrichomoniasisEvidence does not support routine screening for trichomoniasis in asymptomatic pregnant women.
Herpes (HSV)Evidence does not support routine HSV-2 serologic testing among asymptomatic pregnant women.
HIVFirst prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women.
Third trimester: Rescreen women at high risk for acquiring HIV infection.
Hepatitis B (HBV)First prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women.
Third trimester: Test those who were not screened prenatally, those who engage in behaviors that put them at high risk for infection, and those with signs or symptoms of hepatitis at the time of admission to the hospital for delivery.
Risk Factors:
  • Having had more than one sex partner in the previous six months
  • Evaluation or treatment for an STD
  • Recent or current injection-drug use
  • An HBsAg-positive sex partner
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)There are no screening recommendations for HPV.
Hepatitis C (HCV)First prenatal visit: Screen all pregnant women during each pregnancy, except in setting where the prevalence of HCV infection is (HCV RNA-positivity) <0.1%.

Show More

 

As a provider working with pregnant patients, it is important for you to know the ways in which each STD can impact a woman and her developing baby. The following sections provide details on the effects of specific STDs during a woman’s pregnancy, as well as links to Web pages with additional information.

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common cause of vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age, is a polymicrobial clinical syndrome resulting from a change in the vaginal community of bacteria. Although BV is often not considered an STD, it has been linked to sexual activity. Women may have no symptoms or may complain of a foul-smelling, fishy, vaginal discharge. BV during pregnancy has been associated with serious pregnancy complications, including premature rupture of the membranes surrounding the baby in the uterus, preterm labor, premature birth, chorioamnionitis, as well as endometritis.8  While there is no evidence to support screening for BV in pregnant women at high risk for preterm delivery,21 symptomatic women should be evaluated and treated.  There are no known direct effects of BV on the newborn.

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is the most common sexually-transmitted bacterium in the United States.4 Although the majority of chlamydial infections (including those in pregnant women) do not have symptoms, infected women may have abnormal vaginal discharge, bleeding after sex, or itching/burning with urination. Untreated chlamydial infection has been linked to problems during pregnancy, including preterm labor, premature rupture of membranes, and low birth weight.5 The newborn may also become infected during delivery as the baby passes through the birth canal. Exposed newborns can develop eye and lung infections.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a common STD in the United States. Untreated gonococcal infection in pregnancy has been linked to miscarriages, premature birth and low birth weight, premature rupture of membranes, and chorioamnionitis.6 Gonorrhea can also infect an infant during delivery as the infant passes through 1st trimester discharge birth canal. If untreated, infants can develop eye infections. Because gonorrhea can cause problems in both the mother and her baby, it is important for providers to accurately identify the infection, treat it with effective antibiotics, and closely follow up to make sure that the infection has been cured.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis Bpdf icon is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). A mother can transmit the infection to her baby during pregnancy. While the risk of an infected mother passing HBV to her baby varies, depending on when she becomes infected, the greatest risk happens when mothers become infected close to the time of delivery.14 Infected newborns also have a high risk (up to 90%) of becoming chronic HBV carriers themselves.15 Infants who have a lifelong infection with HBV are at an increased risk for developing chronic liver disease or liver cancer later in life. Approximately 25% of infants who develop chronic HBV infection will eventually die from chronic liver disease.13 By screening your pregnant patients for the infection and providing treatment to at-risk infants shortly after birth, you can help prevent mother-to-child transmission of HBV. Usaa medical insurance quote on mother-to-child transmission of HBV can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/PerinatalXmtn.htm.

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and can be passed from an infected mother to her child during pregnancy. In general, an infected mother will transmit the infection to her baby 10% of the time, but the chances are higher in certain subgroups, such as women who are also 1st trimester discharge with HIV.16 In some studies, infants born to HCV-infected women have been shown to have an increased risk for being small for gestational age, premature, and having a low birth weight.15 Newborn infants with HCV infection usually do not have symptoms, and a majority will clear the infection without any medical help.

Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) has two distinct virus types that can infect the human genital tract, HSV-1 and HSV-2. Infections of the newborn can be of either type, but most are caused by HSV-2. Generally, the symptoms of genital herpes are similar in pregnant and in nonpregnant women; however, the major concern regarding HSV infection relates to complications linked to infection of the newborn. Although transmission may occur during pregnancy and after delivery, the risk of transmission to the neonate from an infected mother is high among women who acquire genital herpes near the time of delivery and low among women with recurrent herpes or who acquire the infection during the first half of pregnancy.18 HSV infection can have very serious effects on newborns, especially if the mother’s first outbreak occurred during the third trimester. Cesarean section is recommended for all women in labor with active genital herpes lesions or early symptoms, such as vulvar pain and itching.19-20

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. HIV destroys specific blood cells that are crucial to helping the body fight diseases. According to CDC’s 2018 HIV surveillance data, women make up 24% of all adults and adolescents living with a diagnosed HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas.2 The most common ways that HIV passes from mother to child are during pregnancy, labor, and delivery, or through breastfeeding. However, when HIV is diagnosed before or during pregnancy and appropriate steps are taken, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be lowered to less than 2%.3 A mother who knows early in her pregnancy that she is HIV-positive has more time to consult with you—her healthcare provider—and decide on effective ways to protect her health and that of her unborn baby.

Human Papillomavirus

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are viruses that most commonly involve the lower genital tract, including the cervix, vagina, and external genitalia. Genital warts frequently increase in number and size during pregnancy. Genital warts often appear as small cauliflower-like clusters which may burn or itch. If a woman has genital warts during pregnancy, you may elect to delay treatment until after delivery. When large or spread out, genital warts can complicate a vaginal delivery. In cases where there are large genital warts that are blocking 1st trimester discharge birth canal, a cesarean section may be recommended. Infection of the mother may be linked to the development of laryngeal papillomatosis in the newborn—a rare, noncancerous growth in the larynx .17

Syphilis

Syphilis is primarily a sexually-transmitted disease, but it may be transmitted to a baby by an infected mother during pregnancy. Transmission of syphilis to a developing baby can lead to a serious multisystem infection, known as congenital syphilis. Recently, there has been a sharp increase in the number of congenital syphilis cases in the United States. Syphilis has been linked to premature births, stillbirths, and, in some cases, death shortly after birth.7 Untreated infants that survive tend to develop problems in multiple organs, including the brain, eyes, ears, heart, skin, teeth, and bones.

Trichomoniasis

Vaginal infection due to the sexually-transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is very common. Although most people 1st trimester discharge no symptoms, others complain of itching, irritation, liberty mutual commercial agent login odor, discharge, and pain during urination or sex. If you have a pregnant patient with symptoms of trichomoniasis, she should be evaluated for Trichomonas vaginalis and treated appropriately. Infection in pregnancy has been linked to premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and low birth weight infants.12 Rarely, the female newborn can acquire the infection when passing through the birth canal during delivery and have vaginal discharge after birth.

Screening and prompt treatment are recommended at least annually for all HIV-infected women, based on the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infection, the increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) associated with this infection, and the ability of treatment to reduce genital tract viral load and hillsborough county mls search HIV shedding. This includes HIV-infected women who are pregnant, as T. vaginalis infection is a risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV. For other pregnant women, screening may be considered at the discretion of the treating clinician, as the benefit of routine screening for pregnant women has not been established.22 Screening might be considered for persons receiving care in high-prevalence settings (e.g., STD clinics or correctional facilities) and for asymptomatic persons at high risk for infection. Decisions about screening might be informed by local epidemiology of T. vaginalis infection. However, data are lacking on whether screening and treatment for asymptomatic trichomoniasis in high prevalence settings or persons at high risk can reduce any adverse health events and health disparities or reduce community burden of infection.20

STD Treatment during Pregnancy

STDs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis can all be treated and cured with antibiotics that are safe to take during pregnancy. Viral STDs, including genital herpes, hepatitis B, and HIV cannot be cured. However, in some cases these infections can be treated with antiviral medications or other preventive measures to reduce the risk of passing the infection to the baby. Detailed information on the management of specific infections during pregnancy can be found in CDC’s 2021 STI Treatment Guidelines.

STD Prevention during Pregnancy

After obtaining a sexual history from your patient, you should encourage risk reduction by providing prevention best buy credit card number. The most reliable way to avoid transmission of Federal reserve bank services routing number lookup is to abstain from oral, vaginal, and anal sex or to be in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with a partner known to be uninfected. For patients who are being treated for an STD other than HIV (or whose partners are undergoing treatment), counseling that encourages abstinence from sexual intercourse until completion of the entire course of medication is crucial. Latex male condoms, when used consistently and correctly, can reduce the risk of transmitting or acquiring STDs and HIV.

References

1. Institute of Medicine. The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseasesexternal icon. Eng TR, Butler WT, eds. Washington: National Academy Press. 1997.

2.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2018 (Updated). HIV Surveillance Report 2018;31.pdf icon

3. Panel on Treatment of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission. Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV transmission in 1st trimester discharge United States; 2012 Jul 31:1–235.

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance, 2019.  Atlanta, GA: Department ally financial dealer services phone number Health and Human Services; April 2021.

5. Andrews WW, Goldenberg RL, Mercer B, Iams J, Meis P, Moawad A et al. The Preterm 1st trimester discharge Study: association of second-trimester genitourinary Chlamydia infection with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecolo 2000;183;662–8.

6. Alger LS, Lovchik JC, Heel JR, Blackmon LR, Crenshaw Mc. The association of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseira gonorrhoeae, and group B streptococci with preterm rupture of the membranes and pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1988;159(2):397–404.

7. Genc M, Ledger WJ. Syphilis in pregnancyexternal icon. Sex Transm Inf 2000;76:73.

8. Nelson DB, Macones G. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: current findings and future directions. Epidemiolo Rev 2002;24(2):102–8.

9. Hauth JC, Goldenberg RL, Andrews WW, Dubard MB, Copper RL. Reduced incidence of preterm delivery with metronidazole and erythromycin in women with bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1732–6.

10. McDonald HM, O’Loughlin JA, Vigneswaran R, Jolley PT, Harvey JA. Impact of metronidazole therapy on preterm birth in women with bacterial vaginosis flora (Gardnerella vaginalis): a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Br J Obstet Gynecol 1997;104:1391–7.

11. Morales WJ, Schorr S, Albritton J. Effect of metronidazole in patients with preterm birth in preceding pregnancy and bacterial vaginosis: a placebo-controlled, double blind study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171:345–9.

12. Cotch MF, Pastorek JG II, 1st trimester discharge RP, Hillier SL, Gibbs RS, Martin DH, et al: Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. Sex Transm Dis 1997;24(6):353–60.

13. Hutto C, Arvin A, Jacobs R, Steele R, Stagno S, Lyrene R, et al. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infections. J Pediatr 1987:110:97–101.

14. Sookoian S. Liver disease during pregnancy: acute viral hepatitis. Ann Hepatol 2006; 5:231.

15. Stevens CE, Toy PT, Tong MJ, et al. Perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States. Prevention by passive-active immunization. JAMA 1985; 253:1740.

16. Yeung LT, King SM, Roberts EA. Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2001; 34:223.

17. Silverberg MJ, Thorsen P, Lindeberg H, Grant LA, Shah KV. Condyloma in pregnancy is strongly predictive of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Obstet Gynecolo 2003;101(4):645–52.

18. Brown Z A, Wald A, Morrow R A, Selke S, Zeh J, Corey L. (2003) Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission rates of herpes simplex virus from mother to infant. JAMA, 289(2), 203–209.

19. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). ACOG Practice Bulletin. Clinical management guidelines for obstetrician-gynecologists. No. 82 June 2007. Management of herpes in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2007. 109(6): 1489–1498.

20. Workowski, KA, Bachmann, LH, Chang, PA, et. al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep 2021; 70(No. 4): 1-187.

21. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy to prevent preterm delivery: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148:214–9.

22. Meites E, Gaydos CA, Hobbs MM, Kissinger P, Nyirjesy P, Schwebke JR, et al. Review of Evidence-based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2015; 61:S837–48.

Источник: https://www.cdc.gov/std/pregnancy/stdfact-pregnancy-detailed.htm

Vaginal Yeast Infection During Pregnancy

Topic Overview

Vaginal yeast infections are a common problem during pregnancy. They may be caused by high estrogen levels. These infections aren't a risk to the pregnancy. But they can cause uncomfortable symptoms.

If you are pregnant and have vaginal infection symptoms, see your doctor. Don't assume that your symptoms are caused by a harmless yeast infection. If you have bacterial vaginosis or a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as gonorrhea 1st trimester discharge chlamydia, you will need treatment to prevent problems during pregnancy.

If you are pregnant, do not use nonprescription yeast infection medicine unless you discuss it with your doctor first. Experts recommend that during pregnancy:footnote 1

  • Vaginal medicines should be used for yeast infection treatment. These may be vaginal creams or suppositories.
  • Only certain medicines should be used. Nonprescription medicines include butoconazole (such as Femstat), clotrimazole (such as Gyne-Lotrimin), miconazole (such as Monistat), and terconazole (such as Terazol).
  • Treatment should be used for 7 days. (It can take longer than usual to cure a yeast infection during pregnancy.)

In the past, nystatin (such as Mycostatin) was the drug of choice for the first trimester of pregnancy. But now all vaginal medicines are considered safe during pregnancy.

References

Citations

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR, 64(RR-03): 1–137. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015. Accessed July 2, 2015. [Erratum in MMWR, 64(33): 924. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6433a9.htm?s_cid=mm6433a9_w. Accessed January 25, 2016.]

Credits

Current as of: July 17, 2020

Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review: Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Martin J. Gabica MD - Family Medicine
Deborah A. Penava BA, MD, FRCSC, MPH - Obstetrics and Gynecology

Источник: https://www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hw79515

Vaginal discharge in pregnancy

Contractions and signs of labour

Things you can do that might help

  • Don't douche or use tampons.
  • Use water or aqueous cream to wash your genitals - if you are using aqueous cream be careful not to slip, as it can make your bath or shower slippy.
  • Wipe from front to back after going to the toilet.
  • Have showers rather than baths.
  • Pat your genitals dry after showering, bathing or swimming.
  • Wear underwear from breathable fabrics like cotton.
  • Know when to get medical help.

When to get medical help

Go to see your GP, midwife or obstetrician if you have any of the following:

Bleeding from your vagina

Get medical advice immediately. In early pregnancy, this could be a sign of miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy. In later pregnancy, this could be a sign of a problem with your placenta

Unpleasant or unusual smell from vaginal discharge

Get medical advice - within the citibank dod government travel card login day. This could be a sign 1st trimester discharge an infection like bacterial vaginosis.

Colour of discharge changes to green or brown

Get medical advice - within the next day. This could be a sign of infection like bacterial vaginosis or an STI (sexually transmitted infection).

Itching around vagina or feeling uncomfortable

Mention this at your next appointment or sooner if you can't wait that long. This could be a sign of how to use cash app card as debit on passing urine or blood in the urine

Get medical advice as soon as possible. This could be a sign of a urine infection.

Источник: https://www2.hse.ie/conditions/vaginal-discharge-pregnancy/